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Early American History - Chapter Eight

The start of the American Revolution - chapters 8 of The American Promise: A History of The United States
James Madison
member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
Virginia Convention
A revolutionary assembly replacing the defunct royal government
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
Continental Congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Articles of Confederation
the document that created the first central government among the thirteen states; it was replaced by the Constitution in 1789
a form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws
Bill of Rights 1776
First set of rights passed in Virginia that grants all men certain rights.
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
women who protest for the right to vote
George Mason
author of the Virginia bill of rights
gradual emancipation
1780 - creates a free black population in the north; free children of adult slaves when they reach adulthood - a method to end slavery
manumission law
allowed the freeing of slaves under the age of 45
imported tax
Bank of North America
An idea from Morris - would create a special relationship with the confederation, holding the government's hard money.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
a formalized treaty with the Indians to conclude hostilities and secure land cessions - 1784
Northwest Territory
a proposal by Thomas Jefferson that would divide the territory north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi into nine states with evenly spaced east-west boundaries and townships ten miles square.
Ordinance of 1784
adopted parts of Jefferson's proposal by using the rectangular grid to create ten states that guaranteed self-government.
Ordinance of 1785
This divided public lands into townships of six miles square each and the subdivided each township into one mile square lots.
Treaty of Fort McIntosh
taking partial cessions of land from the Delaware, Huron and Miami tribes.
Northwest Ordinance
set fourth a three-stage process which settled territories that would advance to statehood
constitutional convention
the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787
The Virginia Plan
called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
U.S. Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
three-fifths clause
free blacks would be counted as three-fifths of a vote
Pro-Constitution forces
The Federalist Papers
85 essays on the political philosophy of the new Constitution - collaboration of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay