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APUSH Unit 11 (Ch. 41 & 42)
Terms in this set (49)
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
Refers to weapons, nuclear, biological, and chemical, that are capable of killing large numbers of people and do gret damage to the built and natural environment. The term was used to refer to nuclear weapons during the Cold War.
What provided the rationale for the United States' invasion of Iraq?
The Bush administration's claim that Saddam Hussein had developed WMD.
Were weapons ever found during the invasion of Iraq?
No weapons were found after the invasion.
When was the Iraq Invasion?
When was Bill Clinton President?
Democratic Leadership Council
Non-profit organization of centrist Democrats. The group attempted to push the Democratic party toward pro-growth, strong defense, and anti-crime policies. Among its most influential early members was Bill Clinton, whom it held up as an example of "third way" politics.
When was the Democratic Leadership Council formed?
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell"
The policy affecting homosexuals in the military. It emerged as a compromise between the standing prohibition against homosexuals in the armed forces and President Clinton's push to allow all citizens to serve regardless of sexual orientation. Military authorities were forbidden to ask about a service member's orientation and gay service personnel could be discharged if they publicly revealed their homosexuality.
When was the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy in affect?
How did the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy end?
At President Barack Obama's urging, Congress repealed DADT in 2010, permitting gays to serve openly in uniform.
Oklahoma City Bombing
Truck-bomb explosion that killed 168 people in a federal office building. The attack was perpetrated by right-wing and anti-government militant Timothy McVeigh, later executed by the U.S. government for the crime.
When was the Oklahoma City Bombing?
Contract with America
Multi-point program offered by Republican candidates and sitting politicians in the 1994 midterm election. The platform proposed smaller government, Congressional ethics reform, term limits, great emphasis on personal responsibility, and a general repudiation of the Democratic Party. This articulation of dissent was a significant blow to the Clinton Administration and led to the Republican party's takeover of both house of Congress for the first time in half a century.
Welfare Reform Bill
Legislation that made deep cuts in welfare grants and required able-bodied welfare recipients to find employment.
When was the Welfare Reform Bill passed?
What was the significance of the Welfare Reform Bill?
Part of Bill Clinton's campaign platform in 1992, the reforms were widely seen by liberals as an abandonment of key New Deal/Great Society provisions to care for the impoverished.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Free trade zone encompassing Mexico, Canada, and the United States. A symbol of the increased reality of a globalized market place, the treaty passed despite opposition from protectionists and labor leaders.
When was the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) established?
World Trade Organization (WTO)
An international body to promote and supervise liberal trade among nations.
When was the World Trade Organization (WTO), founded?
What was the significance of the World Trade (WTO)?
The successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, it marked a key trade policy achievement of the Clinton Administration.
A series of scandals during the Clinton Administration that stemmed from a failed real estate investment from which the Clintons were alleged to have illicitly profited. The accusations prompted the appointment of a special federal prosecutor, though no indictments.
Political sex scandal that resulted in Bill Clinton's impeachment and trial by Congress. Clinton gave sworn testimony that he had never engaged in sexual activity with a White House intern named Monica Lewinsky. When prosecutors discovered evidence that the President had lied under oath about the affair, to which Clinton admitted, Republicans in Congress began impeachment proceedings.
When was the Lewinsky Affair?
What was the significance of the Lewinsky Affair?
Although Clinton was ultimately not convicted by the Senate, the scandal put a lasting blemish on his presidential legacy.
An international treaty that committed State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it. 192 nations have joined.
When was the Kyoto Treaty signed?
When was George W. Bush President?
Common shorthand term for the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, in which 19 militiant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commerical aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One crashed into the Pentagon in Washington D.C., and the fourth was overtaken by passengers and crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.
Arabic for "The Base," an international alliance of anti-Western Islamic fundamentalist terrorist organizations founded in the late 1980s. Founded by veterans of the Afghan struggle against the Soviet Union, the group was headed by Osama Bin Laden and has taken responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks, especially after the late 1990s. Al Qaeda organized 9/11 from its headquarters in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan.
What is the legacy of Al Qaeda?
Since the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the launch of the "Global War on Terror," the group has been weakened, especially after the death of Osama Bin Laden, but still poses significant threats around the world.
USA Patriot Act
Legislation passed shortly after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, it granted broad surveillance and detention authority to the government.
When was the U.S.A. Patriot Act passed?
Guantanamo Detention Camp
Controversial prison facility constructed after the U.S. led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001. Located on territory occupied by the U.S. military, but not technically part of the U.S., the facility serves as an extra-legal holding area for suspected terrorists.
Abu Ghraib Prison
A detention facility near Baghdad, Iraq. Under Saddam Hussein, the prison was the site for infamous torturing and execution of political dissidents. During the U.S. occupation of Iraq, the prison became the focal point of prisoner-abuse and torture scandal after photographs surfaced of American soldiers mistreating, torturing and degrading Iraqi war prisoners and suspected terrorists.
When was the torture at Abu Gharib Prison brought to the attention of the American public?
What was the significance of the Abu Gharib Prisoner abuse scandal?
The scandal was one of several dark spots on the public image of the Iraq War and led to increased criticism of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfield.
The costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States, which killed nearly two thousand Americans. The storm ravaged the Gulf Coast, especially the city of New Orleans. In New Orleans, high winds and rain caused the city's levees to break, leading to a catastrophic flooding, particularly in the city's most impoverished wards.
When was Hurricane Katrina?
What resulted from Hurricane Katrina?
A tardy and feeble response by local and federal authorities exacerbated the damage and led to widespread criticism of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
The inverse of "leveraging" where businesses increase their financial power by borrowing money (debt) in addition to their own assets (equity). In times of uncertainty or credit tightening, the same businesses seek to improve their debt-to-equity ratios by shedding debt through the sale of assets purchased with borrowed money.
When was Barack Obama president?
American Relief and Recovery Act
Among the earliest initiatives of the Obama Administration to combat the Great Recession. It was based on the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes that called for increased government spending to offset decreased private spending in times of economic downturn.
When was the American Relief and Recovery Act passed?
What resulted of the American Relief and Recovery Act?
The Act was controversial from the outset, passing with no Republican votes in the House, and only three in the Senate, and helping to foster the "Tea Party" movement to curb government deficits, even while critics on the Left argued that the Act's $787 Billion appropriation was not enough to turn the economy around.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Also known as "Obamacare," the Act extended health care insurance to some 30 million Americans, marking a major step toward achieving the century old goal of universal health care coverage for all citizens.
When was the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed?
Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
Also known as the "Dodd-Frank Act," after its Democratic sponsors, Connecticut Senator Christopher Dodd and Massachusetts Representative Barney Frank. In an effort to avoid another financial crisis like the Great Recession, the Act updated many federal regulations affecting the financial and banking systems, and created some new agencies such as the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection.
When was the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act passed?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH UNIT 1 (Ch. 1-4)
APUSH Unit 2 (Ch. 5-8)
APUSH UNIT 3 (Ch. 9-12).
APUSH Unit 4 (Ch. 13-16)
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