ACOM3143- Communication Theory- Exam 1 (Dee) Use #1

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Noise is ___________Ubiquitous (everywhere)5 types of noise in the Shannon and Weaver Model:Physical Physiological Psychological Perceptual SematicPhysical noise:occurrences in the physical surroundings or in the media that can distort a message (clapping or loud noises). Examples: A baby crying when they wake up from a nap. A concert taking place outside. Loud music playing in a passing car. These things can prevent you from understanding or interpreting the messagePhysiological noise:Key = The body: •Physiological •Physical discomfort in the body of either the sender or the receiver. Effects the body or how you use your body to communicate Examples: Talking too fast or too slow. Not pausing to breathe while speaking. Having trouble articulating a thought or mumbling.Psychological noise:Key = The mind •Distractions or negative feelings in the mind of either the sender or the receiver. Turns the receiver off from the message. Psychological noise refers to the noise in your head that can prevent you from concentrating. It may include wandering thoughts, like switching topics too quickly, making it difficult for the listener to follow your narrative. People who think they know something already also have psychological noise in their heads. Other examples include: Closed-mindedness that leads you to discount ideas. Sarcasm when someone disagrees with your views. Thinking about an unrelated topic during a conversation..Perceptual noise:Key= How you perceive someone Perceptual Incorrect perceptions of the message and the receiver by the sender, and vice-versa It's the basic tendency of people to interpret others and perceive them in a different way. When this happens, the way people communicate with them also changes. These are called perception or perceptual barriers of communication For example, if you are doing a group project for class and you perceive a group member to be shy based on your schema of how shy people communicate, you may avoid giving him presentation responsibilities in your group project because you do not think shy people make good public speakers.Semantic noise:Key- different meanings of words or other symbols that can be confusing. Misinterpretation of words and sentences by the sender or receiver. Technical jargin and grammatical errors and word choice. noise that is often caused by the sender (also known as either the encoder or the source). This type of noise occurs when grammar or technical language is used that the receiver (the decoder) cannot understand, or cannot understand it clearly. Using jargon that another person misunderstands or isn't familiar with. Misinterpreting body language, such as eye contact or voice tone. Speaking words that can have twoSymbolic behavior:words, things and actions are symbols that have meaning Examples of symbolic communication include speech, sign language, writing (print or braille), picture communication systems, and tactile communication systems.Shared code:language, gestures, expressions, etc. Examples: Languages, gestures, expressions, etc.Linked to culture:Beliefs, values, and customs all affect communication, and communication affects them the shared beliefs, values, and practices of a group of peopleIntentionality:communicators must be aware of both intentional and unintentional messages.A transactional process:the sender(s) must send a message and the receiver(s) must act on it. The feedback mechanism comes in at this point. The type of communication that takes place when one person talks to another person or a group of people in real time, and the sender of the message receives simultaneous feedback. Examples of the transactional model include a face-to-face meeting, a telephone call, a Skype call, a chat session, interactive training, or a meeting in which all attendees participate by sharing ideas and comments.Functions of communication:Control Affiliation Goal AchievementControl:many forms of communication are controlling, or at least persuasive.Affiliation:communication is a necessary part of all relationships. People want to feel a part of something.Goal achievement:most communication is focused on a very specific task. Related to control. technical communication.Cultural Contextscustoms, beliefs, activity patterns, behavioral standards, and expectations accepted by the society of which a client is a member. •Culture has a profound effect on communication •Cultural norms dictate the meanings of objects, symbols (including words), and actions (e.g., Scotland two-fingers story) •Sometimes we can be blinded by our own cultureSchemasConcepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information. •Schemas are mental structures that "file" chunks of information and put them together to create meaning and understanding •Throughout life, you continue to gather new information and combine it with old, "filed" information to create understandingPeople schemas:how you perceive and categorize peopleRole schemas:how you perceive and categorize a person's place in society.Event schemas:how you predict what will happen in certain situations.Intrapersonal communication:internal discussion one has with oneself when adjusting one's schema. •When you encounter a stimulus, your mind gathers all the information it can, searches its files, and determines if and how the new information fits in with the old information. This process of proposing explanations to yourself is known as intrapersonal communication Intrapersonal communication serves several social functions. Internal vocalization, or talking to ourselves, can help us achieve or maintain social adjustment. For example, a person may use self-talk to calm himself down in a stressful situation, or a shy person may remind herself to smile during a social event.Mindlessness:lack of in-depth schema analysis that causes misperceptions.Selective perception:Key = Biased biases or strongly held attitudes sometimes cause our intrapersonal communication to be incomplete or inaccurate. Selective perception is the process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages while ignoring opposing viewpoints. It is a broad term to identify the behavior all people exhibit to tend to "see things" based on their particular frame of reference. Example: , a teacher may have a favorite student because they are biased by in-group favoritism. The teacher ignores the student's poor attainment.Bloom's Taxonomy:explains how people must learn at increasing levels. From basic awareness all the way to critical thinking. Bloom's taxonomy is a classification system used to define and distinguish different levels of human cognitionCognitionAbility to learn and think at higher levels of complexity Bloom's Taxonomy explains how people must learn at increasing levels •From basic awareness all the way to critical thinking Key= learning to think at higher levels of complexityChannelsthe visual and auditory means by which a message is transmitted from sender to receiver. Media is chosen according to audience and purpose Channel capacity is the quantitative limit of the mediumChannel capacity:the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted through a channel. the quantitative limit of the medium without the medium breaking down.Ethnocentrism and culture myopia:when people can't see past their own culture.Stereotyping:not always a negative term. Used by mass media in audience analysis (demographic research).Aristotle's 3 modes of persuasion:ethos, pathos, and logosEthos:appeals to people's sense of credibility/sense of right or wrong. Ethics. Key = Credibility Ethos consists of convincing your audience that you have good character and you are credible therefore your words can be trusted. Ethos must be established from the start of your talk or the audience will not accept what you say.Pathos:appeals to people's emotions. Can also be an appeal to people's right or wrong. The tugging at your heart strings tactic can backfire because people can see through to the tactics behind the commercial. Key= Emotion Pathos, or the appeal to emotion, means to persuade an audience by purposely evoking certain emotions to make them feel the way the author wants them to feel. Authors make deliberate word choices, use meaningful language, and use examples and stories that evoke emotion.Logos:appeals to people's logic. Aristotle says is most long lasting method. Using facts, statistics, and research to persuade people. Key= Logic Logos, or the appeal to logic, refers to the effort to convince your audience by using logic and reason. Effective arguments should include testimonials, surveys and other supporting details to back up your claims/positions.Elaboration likelihood routes:central route and peripheral route. The elaboration likelihood routs of persuasion is essentially a theory about the thinking processes that might occur when we attempt to change a person's attitude through communication, the different effects that particular persuasion variables play within these processesCentral route (logos):this route needs the motivation to understand and the ability to understand. Based on Facts, appearance of Credibility Key = UnderstandPeripheral route:peripheral cues; not based on the facts (pathos and ethos); appearance of credibility (ethos); visual aesthetics; expectation of reward. Key = Not based on Facts, appearance of Credibility perihilar = outside of the facts3 theories of mass communication:gatekeeping agenda setting framing.Gatekeeping:journalists are gatekeepers; decide what issues are most important for readers; research focuses on what motivates gatekeepers to choose certain stories and angels.Agenda setting:journalists' decisions about what to cover directly affects public opinion.Framing:journalists choose the angles of their news stories based on values they think are important; public relations professionals seek to affect framing through media relations.