Patho: Chapter 4: Neoplasia

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T/F cancer growth is uncoordinated and relatively autonomous
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Terms in this set (116)
malignant tumor of epithelial tissuecarcinomabenign tumor of bone tissueosteomamalignant tumors or mesenchymal originsarcomabenign microscopic or macroscopic finger-like projections growing on a surfacepapillomaswhat kind of neoplasm: a slow, progressive rate of growth that may come to a standstill or regreebenignwhat kind of neoplasm: an expansive manner of growthbenignwhat kind of neoplasm: inability to metastasize to distant sitesbenignwhat kind of neoplasm: composed of well-differentiated cells that resemble the cells of the tissue of originbenignt/f benign neoplasms cannot metastasize and become malignantfalsewhat kind of neoplasm: tend to grow rapidly and quicklymalignantwhat kind of neoplasm: have the potential to kill regardless of their original locationmalignantwhat kind of neoplasm: tend to compress blood vessels and outgrow their blood supply, causing ischemia and tissue necrosismalignantwhat kind of neoplasm: rob normal tissues of essential nutrientsmalignantwhat kind of neoplasm: liberate enzymes and toxins that destroy tumor tissue and normal tissuemalignantwhat kind of neoplasm: do not obey rules of cell proliferation or growthmalignantwhat kind of neoplasm: do not contribute to the function of the hostmalignant•Which of the following does not apply to benign tumor cells? A.A slow, progressive rate of growth that may come to a standstill or regress B.An expansive manner of growth C.Liberate enzymes and toxins that destroy tumor tissue and normal tissue D. Composed of well-differentiated cells that resemble the cells of the tissue of originC•Which of the following cellular change is considered preneoplastic? • •A. Dysplasia •B. Hyperplasia •C. Metaplasia D. AnaplasiaAunmodifiable risk factor for cancer preventionagemodifiable/lifestyle factors for cancer prevention:play a role in helping cells repair DNA damageantioxidants______________ damage/mutate DNA of genescarcinogenscancer causing agentscarcinogenscarcinogens cause ___________ instability and increases ____________ of genesgenomic, mutationsignal for cell proliferation/growthproto-oncogenesoveractivity of which gene causes cancer?proto-oncogeneinhibit cell proliferationtumor suppressor genesunderactivity of what gene causes cancer?tumor suppressor genesproto-oncogenes normally act to turn on ______ ___________cell divisionactivation of proto-oncogenes---> ____________oncogeneswhat can be responsible of the activation of a proto-oncogene into an ocnogene?virus growth factor (signal excessive growth) genetic issuesT/F tumor suppressor genes contribute to cancer only when they are not present or when they are defectivetruetumor suppressor genes usually function to switch off ____ ___________cell divisiontumor suppressor genes: host has problem if both genes are __________ or _________________absent, damagedtumor suppressor genes: without this gene, cell proliferation is _____________--> abnormal cell __________uninhibited, growthBRCA genes are _______ _______________ genestumor suppressorwhen BRCA changes, it no longer ________ abnormal cell growth and __________ likely to developsuppresses, cancerBRCA1: Chromosome ___17BRCA1 is ___________ dominantautosomalwhich BRCA gene is passed on more frequently?BRCA 185% of people with BRCA1 mutation will develop __________ cancer and increased risk of __________ cancerbreast, ovarianBRCA2: Chromosome ___13BRCA2: ____-___% of breast cancer10-15the process of turning into cancercarcinogenesisT/F it is likely to take several mutations to achieve full malignancytruesteps of carcinogenesis: -______________ -______________ -__________________initiation, promotion, progressionin what stage of carcinogenesis is a carcinogen applied to a cell?initiationexamples of repeated exposure that can cause initiation are: -____ and ____________ radiation -certain __________, ___________, _____________UV, ionizing, viruses, asbestos, chemicalsinitiation: if the cell cannot repair, it __________mutatesgenetic mutation inappropriately activates _______-__________ and inactivate __________ ______________ genesproto-oncogenes, tumor suppressorthese genetic mutations are not evident until the cell ______________proliferatesin what stage of carcinogenesis does the mutant cell proliferate?promotiontransition from initiation to promotion: involves other _______/__________ gene that has been keeping _______________ in checkoncogene, suppressor, proliferationpromoting factors that may be providing a stimulus for proliferation/promotion: -_______________ factors -________________ -prolonged ___________nutritional, hormones stressat what stage can you detect cancer?the progression stagein what stage of carcinogenesis do mutant, proliferating cells exhibit malignant behavior?progressionprogression: -proliferating cells are ___________ unstable -they have ___________ advantage -___________ make up and they do not function normally -will invade ____________ that is not their owngenetically, growth, bizarre, territorymalignant cells express excess ___________ which allow them relative immortalitytelomerasecancer cells initiate new colonies of cancer in a distant locationmetastasiswhen cancer cells are in a new location and must acquire nutrients and blood supplyangiogenesismetastasis: can also press on tissue causing __________ to areasischemiapattern of spread: must find a __________ to adhere tomatrixpattern of spread: -direct ___________ or _______________invasion, extensionpattern of spread: -pieces break offseedingpattern of spread: spread through ___________ or __________blood, lymphcancer cells can be detected by ____________ cells and destroyedimmune_____________ spread may follow _________ drainage. __________ seed to area that immediately _______ the locationhematologic, vascular lymph drainsearly stage of cancer: may be __________ or common vague symptoms, ___________asymptomatic, prodromeearly warning signs of cancer: CAUTIONclinical manifestations of cancer: -___________ integrity -cancer ___________ -_______________ syndromestissue, cachexia, paraneoplasticclinical manifestations of cancer: -compressed and eroded blood vessels -ulceration and necrosis -frank bleeding and hemorrhagetissue integrityclinical manifestations of cancer: -weight loss and wasting of body fat and muscle -profound weakness, anorexia, and anemiacancer cachexiaclinical manifestations of cancer: -inappropriate hormone release -pancytopenia -decreased immune responses -loss of organ functionparaneoplastic syndromesdiagnostic measures for cancer detectiondiagnostic measures for cancer detection: tumor ____________markersA stage 1-2 cancer diagnosis means there is no ___________metastasisgrading or staging: histologic, degree of anaplasiagradinggrading or staging: location, pattern/extent of spreadstaging5 year survival rate: -estimate of the ____________ -calculated from the point of _____________ -can help with comparative effectiveness of ___________prognosis, diagnosis, treatments_________ implies eradication of all cancer cells in the bodycureT/F it is hard to really know if all cancer cells are gonetrueremission: cancer more in control but still therepartialremission: all signs of cancer gone. NED (no evidence of disease)completecancer returns after it was in remissionrecurrencetreatments; -_____________ (extend life) vs. ____________ (get rid of cancer)palliative, curativecancer treatment modalities:immunotherapy is a type of?biotherapywhat kind of therapy uses high-energy particles or waves to destroy or damage cancer cellsradiationT/F radiation can also produce effects indirectly by interacting with __________, to produce _______ _________, which damage cell structurewater, free radicalstissues within the treatment fields that are most frequently affected are the -_________ -the mucosal lining of the ___ ______ -and the _________ ___________skin, GI tract, bone marrowtransplantation of hematologic stem cells when the patient's marrow is incapable of _____________ appropriately or enoughmanufacturingdonor allogenictissues matchedsyngeneicidentical twinautologouspatient's own tissueT/F before stem cell administration, patient's own immune cells must be completely ___________ to prevent _____________suppressed, rejectionrisk of stem cell therapy? what is it?graft vs host disease body rejection everywherecytotoxic and interfere with step in cell divisionchemotherapyneeds multiple doses to kill cellschemotherapysome chemos are -___________ -some can be very __________ _________ -some can interrupt _________ supply to tumornonspecific, cell specific, bloodharnessing the patient's immune system to fight the cancer cellsimmunotherapy/biotherapyused as adjuncts to other therapiesimmunotherapy/biotherapyimmunotherapy/biotherapy: -__________ inhibit cell proliferationinterferonimmunotherapy/biotherapy treatments cause side effects similar to __________ ______________viral infectionsimmunotherapy/biotherapy: ___________ ___________ to bind to target antigens and deliver ___________ drug to a specific cellmonoclonal antibody, cytotoxic•Tumor suppressor genes lead to cancer when which of the following occurs? • •A. They are overproduced in the cell •B. They are overactive in the cell •C. They are absent from the cell •D. They are present in more than one location in the chromosomeC•A patient underwent bronchoscopy and histological exam of a suspected lung tumor. The diagnosis was primary bronchial carcinoma. This diagnosis indicates which of the following? • •A. Benign tumor •B. Malignant tumor •C. Metastasis of the tumor D. The tumor is localizedB