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Chapter 26 and 27 Quiz
Terms in this set (31)
House Un-American Activities Committee
This was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security". When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.
One of the factions that branched off of the Democratic party before the election of 1948. This party consisted of Southern Democrats who were angry at the civil rights legislation Truman had proposed and/or succeeded in passing. They nominated Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for President. Also known as the States' Right Democratic Party.
Law passed in 1944 that provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterans as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Interstate Highway Act
This act was passed during the Eisenhower administration, it created the interstate highway system. As a result, it vastly accelerated the growth of suburbia.
Ike's Farewell Address/ Military industrial Complex
In his final address to the nation in 1961, Eisenhower spoke about the power of what he called the military industrial complex, which by then employed 3.5 million Americans. This complex has its roots in the business-government partnership of WWII.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in suburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. The name given to these homes became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
A large-scale migration of whites from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban regions. It was first seen as originating from fear and anxiety about increasing minority populations.
Formed in July 1967 by President Lyndon Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 urban riots. In 1968, it delivered a report to Johnson, warning that "our nation is moving toward two societies, on black, one white, separate and unequal."
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II. The low taxes, mild climate, and open space allowed for sprawling subdivisions.
Growth of the Middle Class
This was caused by the rapid rise in the standard of living following WWII. Nearly 1 million people entered this class each year. Larger number of people with more disposable income correlated to a consumer culture of automobiles, appliances, etc.
The period of large birth rates following WWII, it peaked in 1957 and remained at a high level until the early 1960s. One reason for the large number of births was that people were having children at the same time. A second was a drop in the average marriage age--down to 22 for men and 20 for women.
The emergence of commercial television in the US was swift and overwhelming. In 1947, there were 7,000 TV sets in American homes and by 1950, Americans owned 7.3 million sets. Television advertisers mastered the art of manufacturing consumer desire. TV stations, like radio stations before them, depended entirely on advertising for profits.
The notion that individuals require state protection from discrimination. This version of liberalism focused on identities--such as race or sex--rather than general social welfare (New Deal), and as such would prove to be a both necessary expansion of the nation's ideals and a divisive force that produced political backlash.
Desegregation of Armed Forces
Truman issued an executive order in July of 1948, establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
"To Secure These Rights"
In 1946, Truman appointed the Presidential Committee on Civil Rights, whose 1947 report called for robust federal action to ensure equality for African Americans.
Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was a denial of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed in the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court decision directly contradicted the legal principle of "separate but equal" established by Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. As a result of its victory in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the NAACP continued to base its court suits on the "equal protection" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Led by Dr. King, for the next 381 days, African Americans formed car pools or walked to work. As a result, the Supreme Court ruled segregation of public transportation illegal.
She was a civil rights activist in Montgomery, Alabama. On December 1, 1955, she refused to give up her bus seat to a White passenger. Her refusal helped galvanize the Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Dr. King.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
His goal was a peaceful integration of the races in all areas of society. His theory of nonviolent civil disobedience was influenced by the writings of Henry David Thoreau. He was head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott and a campaign against segregation in Birmingham, Alabama.
Little Rock 9
In September 1957, when nine black students attempted to enroll at the all-white Central High School, Governor Orval Faubas called out the National Guard to bar them . Eisenhower sent 1,000 federal troops to Little Rock, ordering them to protect the black students. They were the first African Americans to attend an all-white school.
This was a document signed in 1956 by 101 members of Congress, it denounced the Brown decision as "a clear abuse of judicial power" and encouraged local officials to defy it.
The Great Society
The primary goals were to use federal government to enhance social welfare and use education and job training to help disadvantaged people overcome the cycle of poverty limiting their opportunities. Its legislative achievements include: the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Medicare and Medicaid, the War on Poverty, and programs offering significant federal aid to education.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, religion, national origin, and sex. It also guaranteed equal access to public accommodations and schools.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
This act outlawed literacy tests and other devices that prevented African Americans from registering to vote, and authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register voters in any county where registration was less than 50 percent. This act enabled millions of African Americans to vote for the first time since the Reconstruction Era.
Immigration Act of 1965
This act abolished the national-origins quotas and allowed 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere to enter the U.S. each year.
Spurred by Malcolm X and other black leaders, a call for black pride and advancement without the help of whites. This appeared to be a repudiation of the calls for peaceful integration urged by MLK.
Radical nationalist group founded in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. Advocated for African American community protection against police violence and opposed the Vietnam War.
United Farm Workers
Founded by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta, a union for migrant workers. It succeeded in helping to improve wages and working conditions. It was organized to help mainly the Chicano population.
Mexican-American migrant farm worker, who founded the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963. He helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining rights.
American Indian Movement
A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans. In 1973, they organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Modeled after radical Black Panther organization. Their protests attracted widespread mainstream media coverage and spurred government action on tribal issues.
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