Patho: Chapter 5 Prelecture: Hematopoietic

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born in the bone marrow and stay in the bone marrow
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for many disorders, bone marrow biopsy is ___________ whereas CBC peripheral blood draw may not bediagnosticbone marrow depressionnot functioning properlylow platelets, <150,000thrombocytopeniatoo many immature WBC's that cannot function well or not enough of themleukopenia, neutropenianot enough rbc's to carry oxygen and nutrientsanemiawhen all three (platelets, WBC's, RBC's) are depressedpancytopenialab value that shows oxygen carrying capacityhemoglobinhemoglobin for men13-17hemoglobin for women12-15lab value that shows % of RBC in body- indicates fluid statushematocritan elevated HCT indicates...dehydrationhematocrit for men42-54%hematocrit for women38-46%Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)size of RBC (microcytic, normocytic, macrocytic)mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)color of RBCMean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)weight of RBCreticulocyte countimmature RBCnormal WBC count4500-11000what is the range for platelet count?150,000-450,000PT/INR assess the ________ pathway of coagulationextrinsicwhat is the range for PT?10-14 secondswhat is the range for INR? (international normalized ratio)1.5-3.5aPTT assesses the _________ pathway. the range is _____________.intrinsic, 33-45the aPTT is increased in _____________.hemophiliaESRgeneral indication of inflammationT/F total blood volume is higher in pregnancytruecomponents of the blood picturewhat part of blood is vital for transport of nutrients and chemical messengers?plasmaplasma proteins contribute to the regulation of ___________ pressureosmoticplasma proteins are primarily produced by the __________liverwhat are some plasma proteins?albumin, globulins, fibrinogenwhat plasma protein is for osmotic colloid pressure?albuminwhat plasma protein is for antibodies and hormones?globulinswhat plasma protein is for clotting factors?fibrinogenanother name for red blood cellserythrocytesRBC's: -most _____________ -transport ____________ to tissues -remove _________ ____________ from the tissues -stimulus for production- _______________ -life span: __-___ daysnumerous, oxygen, carbon dioxide, erythropoietin, 80-120Where is eryhtropoietin produced?kidneyswhat are the nutritional requirements for RBC's to form properly?b12, iron, folic acid, absorbic acid, vitamin EErythropoietinhormone that stimulates rbc productionfolate and b12 deficiencies in RBC leads to....impaired DNA synthesisRBCs: -______________ are coenzymes of key reactions in cellular metabolism -absorption of b12 requires __________ ___________ -release of o2 and co2 is _____________ -____________ is used by the RBC to regulate intracellular Na, K, Ca, Mgvitamins, intrinsic factor, passive, glucoseWhere is intrinsic factor produced?stomachwhat happens if the RBC loses energy?become Na-logged and will diefetal hemoglobin: -babies born with ___% of their hbg as fetal hbg -___________ lifespan -excellent ___ carrying ability70, shorter, O2T/F first 2-3 months of a babies life, they do not make as much hbg and their rapid growth exacerbates this issuetruefetal hemoglobin: -as O2 needs increase ---> _________ and increased production of ____erytrhopoiesis, RBCat what age is the baby on track with normal amounts of adult hbg?6 monthsat what age is fetal iron stores from mom depleted and the baby is on their own for iron?6 monthsRBC destruction: -life span of ___ days -it is broken down in the _______ -the degradation products (__________ and __________ _______) are recycled120, spleen, iron, amino acidsRBC destruction: -the heme molecule is converted to ___________ and transported to the __________ -it is removed and rendered _______ soluble for elimination in the ________ -if this does not occur, __________ developsbilirubin, liver, water, bile, jaundicedeficit of red cellsanemiaanemia: -tissue ___________ d/t low oxygen carrying capacityhypoxiaanemia: Hgb and HCT are usually _______.lowexcess of RBCspolycythemiapolycythemia: -increased blood _________ and ___________viscosity, volumewe can see polycythemia in _________ disorderslungin polycythemia, the ______ level is increasedHCTnormal total red cell mass with disturbances in regulation of plasma volumerelative anemiaif a pt is dehydrated or overhydrateddilutional anemiaactual decrease in numbers of rbc's -decreased production or -increased destructionabsolute anemiacells of ___________ circulate in the blood stream and lymph systemimmunityother name for WBCsleukocytesWBCs are formed from ____ _______ in marrow in response to _________ levelsstem cells, cytokine_________ are chemical messengers released when body detects infectioncytokinest/f neutrophils only live a few daystruewhen can we see an increase in immature neutrophils?bacterial infection (shift to the left!)the early first responders to infectionneutrophilshave an important role in -allergic reactions -parasitic and chronic immune responseseosinophilswhat do eosinophils release?inflammatory mediatorscontain mediators of inflammation such as: -IgE receptors -histaminebasophilsthe main funcitonal cell of the immune system and is in lymph circulationlymphocyteswhich cells are part of the adaptive immune system and participate in antibody-antigen reactionsb and t cellsnonspecific and part of the innate immune systemnk cellsmonocytes and macrophages have a primary role in the _______ immune system. what do they do?innate. engulf foreign material and present it to the T cellmonocytes live for ____ days and then become _________3 monocytesmononuclear phagocyte systeminnate immune systeminnate immune response: the first to encounter a pathogen __________ _______ cells ___ cells and ____________monocytes, dendritic, NK, macrophagesinnate immune response: -communicate to the body an invader is present through chemical mediators such as ___________ and ____________cytokines, interleukinscytokines will send signals to the __________ immune systemadaptiveT/F innate immune system is able to distinguish between self and nonselftrueT/F innate immune response can distinguish between different types of invading systemsfalseinnate immune response __________ and starts the _____________ response systemamplifies, inflammatoryadaptive immunity is called _________ immunityacquiredT/F adaptive immunity can distinguish between self and nonselftrueT/F adaptive immunity can recognize and destroy specific foreign agents based on their antigenic propertiestruewhat kind of immunity allows for a heightened immune response on subsequent encounters?adaptive immunitywhat are the primary organs of adaptive immunity?bone marrow and thymusall lymphocytes are produced form stem cells in the ______ ________bone marrow____ and _____ cells stay in the marrow for developmentB, NK____ cells migrate to the thymus for developmenttadaptive immunity: -once developed, T and B lymphocytes migrate to 2 degree ________ organs to await ___________ activationlymph, antigenwhat are 2 degree lymph organs?tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, peyer patchesantigen introduced to body --->recognized and immune response initiated antibodies are secreted in response to antigenpart of innate immunity that can kill tumor and virally infected cells without previous exposureNK cellsT lymphocytes:CD4 T helpers and CD8 cytotoxic cellsT lymphocytes (CD4, CD8) have _______ immunity, which means they interact with ________antigensT lymphocytes are _____ _________ immunitycell mediateddefends against intracellular microbesT lymphocytesb lymphocytes produce ________, but required the help of _____ helpers to respondantibodies, Tb lymphocytes are ______ immunityhumoraldefend against extracellular microbes and toxinsb lymphocytessubstances foreign to the host that can stimulate an immune responseantigensrecognize antigensantibodiesantibodies are receptors on _________ cellsimmuneimmunity to past infectionIgGimmunity to current infectionIgMprimarily associated with allergic reactions and inflammationIgEwhat cell binds to help start the cascade and signal other cells?T helper (CD4)what cell informs and signals B cells and CD8 (T killer)?T helper (CD4)what cell recognizes and binds to antigen and then causes cell apoptosis?T cytotoxic (CD8)t/f each t cell can recognize/respond to many antigen typesfalse ( t cells are specific)how does the t helper cell call for help?releasing cytokines that induce b cells to divide and make clonesimmune summaryother name for plateletsthrombocytescirculating cytoplasmic fragment derived from myeloid cellthrombocytest/f platelets cannot replicated since they dont have a nucleustrueplatelets form ______ and control ______clots, bleedingPlatelets (thrombocytes) live for ___ days10clotting factors: -proteins produced in the _________ -help the platelets bind to hold the _____ togetherliver, clotarrest of bleeding or prevention of blood loss after blood vessel injuryhemostasishemostasis involves -_________ wall -___________ -__________ ____________ proteinsvessel, platelets, plasma coagulationinappropriate formation of clots (too much clotting)thrombosisfailure of clottingbleedingprocess of hemostasis: