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IB SEHS 6.1&6.2 Statistical Analysis and Study Design
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IB SEHS
Terms in this set (22)
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
...
What are Error Bars?
Graphical representation of the
variability
of data
Mean & Standard Deviation: calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of data
1. What is standard deviation measuring?
2. What % of scores will fall within 1 standard deviation?
3. What % of scores will fall within 2 standard deviations?
1. Standard deviation measures the
spread
of results. In sport it's a measure of
consistency
.
> Tells us little about a single set of data but
very useful for comparing
sets of data.
2.
68% of all values will fall within 1 Standard Deviation
of the mean
3.
95% of all values will fall within 2 standard deviations
of the mean.
Explain how standard deviation might be used to compare two sets of data.
Two golfers practice putting; they measure distance short of hole and past hole; both have
same mean
but better golfer is consistently closer to the hole and has a
much smaller standard deviation
.
What's the formula for the Coefficient of Variation.
What does it tell us?
Very similar information to SD but use of percentage helps people understand.
What does a t-test tell us?
If the difference between two sets of data is
significant or
just
chance
.
Paired T-Test
Looks at scores/results for the
same
golfer
or similar groups
e.g. comparing PGA scores.
What is an Unpaired T-Test
Looks at scores of
two different groups
e.g. comparing professional golfers with amateur golfers.
Are correlation and causality the same thing?
Justify your answer with an example.
No
There is a
strong correlation
between number of firemen attending fires and the value of damage done by fire. But firemen do
not cause
fires to get worse.
STUDY DESIGN
...
What is an Independent Variable?
A variable that is intentionally changed
to observe its effect on the dependent variable
What is a Dependent Variable?
The variable that is expected to change
when the independent variable is changed
What are Control Variables?
The variables you keep the same in an experiment
What is Specificity?
Use the
right measure
(e.g. test/questionnaire)
for the right thing
.
e.g. Jumping: Use the Sergeant Jump Test (not lung capacity) to measure a player jumping (not running)
What is Reliability?
degree to which a measure would
produce the same result
from one occasion to another
What is Accuracy?
Make sure that the
instruments are accurate used properly
What is Validity?
Can we apply our findings
to a wider population?
[think
lab tests & ecological validity
]
What good practices might you consider when designing a sports science experiment?
B
lind - don't tell them if they're in the control group.
C
ontrol group
R
andomly assign people to groups
statistical
A
nalysis of data
P
lacebo for control group.
[
B
e
CRAP
}
What's PAR-Q?
Why is it important?
> Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
> If you don't do it someone might die.
Give the good news and the bad news on field tests and lab tests. Illustrate with an example.
Measuring the fitness levels of a footballer
> field tests: high validity; low control; less accuracy
> lab tests: high accuracy; high control; low validity
If we want to know how much weight someone can lift we should use a Maximal Test. Agree?
Depends.
Maximal test gives that data
BUT if the athlete is unfamiliar with such testing they may not go to the max. May be better to
use a Sub-maximal test and calculate their max
from this.
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