________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
Inspiratory reserve volume
The portion of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose is the
The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and
bronchioles, is called
Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problems result from
genetic mutation in a membrane channel and thick secretions that are difficult to transport.
The following is a list of some airways.
1. secondary bronchus
3. alveolar ducts
4. primary bronchus
5. respiratory bronchiole
7. terminal bronchiole
The order in which air passes through is
4, 1, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6.
Sympathetic input to the smooth muscle tissue in bronchioles causes all of these except
The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
Which of these descriptions best matches the term bronchiolar smooth muscle?
contraction increases airway resistance
________ generally causes a rapid increase in the rate of mucus production in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Exposure to debris or pathogens
Exposure to allergens
Exposure to noxious stimuli
Exposure to unpleasant stimuli
The respiratory defense system is important because it
keeps out pathogens.
helps filter the air.
helps warm the air.
keeps out debris.
________ is the most common lethal inherited disease affecting individuals of Northern European descent.
What is the function of the structures labeled "12"?
create narrow passages
cause air to swirl within the respiratory passageway
improve warming of incoming air
Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because
it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.
Which of the following is not true about the pharynx?
shared by the integumentary and respiratory systems
The adult human trachea is about ________ in diameter and contains ________ tracheal cartilages.
2.5 cm; 15-20
Physical damage to the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa is likely to result in
epistaxis or nosebleeds
The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because
large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing.
Tina is singing a song. At a certain point in the song she forces a large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time increases the tension on her vocal cords. The sound that she produces is
high pitched and loud
A pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that function in sound production are the
A common site to place a tracheostomy tube is through the ligament that connects the cricoid cartilage to the ________ cartilage.
Tension on the vocal cords is regulated by the
movement of the arytenoid cartilages and contraction of laryngeal muscles.
An acute infection of the throat that can lead to swelling and closure of the glottis and cause suffocation is known as
Contraction of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles can
move the arytenoid cartilages, close the glottis, and stretch the vocal folds.
During swallowing, the
glottis closes and the epiglottis is depressed.
intrinsic laryngeal muscles contract.
extrinsic laryngeal muscles contract.
During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the ________ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
Which of the following statements about the trachea is false?
is reinforced with D-shaped cartilages
A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe
increased thickness of the right ventricular wall.
The resulting pain and inflammation when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the opposing pleural surfaces is known as
Respiratory function deteriorates as a result of pneumonia because inflammation
causes fluids to leak into the alveoli and causes respiratory bronchioles to swell and constrict.
Damage to the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in
a loss of surfactant, increased surface tension in the alveoli, and increased tendency to alveolar collapse.
If the production of surfactant by type II alveolar cells (septal cells) is inadequate, which of these changes is expected?
All of these changes can be expected if the production of surfactant is inadequate.
Primary bronchi are to ________ as secondary bronchi are to ________.
extrapulmonary bronchi; intrapulmonary bronchi
Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of
The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is
__________ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the __________.
Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?
How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?
The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase.
Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?
O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries.
Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?
the molecular weight of the gas
While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe probably is suffering from
If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
________ equals the respiratory rate × (tidal volume - anatomic dead space).
alveolar ventilation rate
The term ________ describes the result from an injury that permits air to leak into the intrapleural space.
Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
primary muscle of inspiration
When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that
they are equal
________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.
________ involves active inspiratory and expiratory movements and calls on accessory muscles to assist with inhalation, while exhalation involves contraction of the internal intercostal muscles and sometimes abdominal muscles too.
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is
respiratory distress syndrome
Henry's law states that
the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
Dalton's law states that
in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
40 mm Hg
Decompression sickness is a painful condition that develops when a person is exposed to a sudden drop in atmospheric pressure. Bubbles of ________ gas are responsible for the problem.
As an astronaut is lifted into Earth's orbit, what is the first change to take place in response to the drop in cabin pressure?
decreased alveolar PO2
A pulmonary embolism can be caused by ________ becoming trapped in a pulmonary artery.
blood clots, masses of fat, and air bubbles
Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the
diameter of an alveolus
Under quiet conditions, blood returning to the heart from the systemic circulation retains about ________ of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs..
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to
either increase the partial pressure of oxygen or decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
is in RBCs.
can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
is an enzyme.
Which of the following would be greater?
the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the temperature is 38 degrees centigrade (as opposed to 43)
At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
at least 90
Which of the following would be greater?
the percent of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin when the pH is 7.6 (as opposed to 7.2)
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately
45 mm Hg
Each 100 ml of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ________ ml of oxygen.
Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will
decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
Pneumotaxic centers in the pons
receive input from the hypothalamus and cerebrum.
modify respiratory rate and depth.
promote passive or active exhalation.
inhibit the apneustic centers.
Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to
changes in PCO2 , PO2 , and pH.
If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,
a person would stop breathing
A 10 percent increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will
increase the rate of breathing.
Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except
the precentral motor gyrus.
All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the
Which of these changes does not occur at birth when an infant takes its first breaths?
Blood flow to the lungs decreases.
Severing the sensory fibers from the lungs would result in all of the following, except
a drop in tidal volume.
In emphysema, which of these occur?
elevated PCO2 in the blood
Which of the following systems is (are) responsible for elimination of CO2 as waste?
urinary and respiratory only