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AP Psychology Unit 14 Flashcards
by Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (104)
Attribution, Attitudes, and Actions (module heading)
What do social psychologists study? How do we tend to explain others' behavior and our own?
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
The Fundamental Attribution Error (heading)
- Heider proposed an attribution theory
-fundamental attribution error
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. ;We can attribute the behavior to the person's stable, enduring traits (dispositional attribution) or to the situation (situational attribution).
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. ; research found that a group of people attributed someone's behavior to their personal disposition even when told that their behavior was just acting. ; Individualist Westerners more often attribute behavior to people's personal traits. ; Our present self adopts the observer's perspective and attributes our past behavior mostly to our traits; Our attributions to a person's disposition or to the situation have real consequences.
Attitudes and Actions (heading)
Does what we think affect what we do, or does what we do affect what we think?
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Attitudes Affect Actions (sub-heading)
-Persuasion efforts generally take two forms: (1) peripheral route persuasion is when people respond to incidental cues such as endorsements and make snap judgments. (2) central route persuasion offers evidence and arguments that aim to trigger favorable thoughts and is more likely to influence behavior. ; But other factors, including the situation, also influence behavior (like peer pressure).; attitudes are likely to affect behavior when external influences are minimal, and when the attitude is stable, specific to the behavior, and easily recalled. Persuasion can change attitudes, which can change behavior.
peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Actions Affect Attitudes (sub-heading)
-People will also believe more strongly in what they have stood up for.
-foot-in-the-door phenomenon: In many cases, in which someone induced another to act against their beliefs, people will adjust their attitudes. The foot in the door phenomenon is when you get people to agree to something big, you start small and build. Fortunately, the principles works with good deeds as well like with charities.
-Experiments confirm the observation: Moral action strengthens moral convictions.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (Korean War war prisoners.)
Role Playing Affects Attitudes (sub-heading)
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. ; when you start off somewhere new (adopt a new role) you strive to follow the social prescriptions. At first, you are acting a role. Later what began as playacting becomes you. (Stanford prison experiment).; yet people differ. Some people will succumb to the situation, and others will not.
Cognitive Dissonance: Relief from Tension (sub-heading)
-Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when we become aware that our attitudes and actions don't coincide, we experience tension, or cognitive dissonance.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes. ; we cannot directly control all our feelings, but we can influence them by altering our behavior.
Conformity and Obedience (module heading)
Conformity: Complying with Social Pressures
What is automatic mimicry, and how do conformity experiments reveal the power of social influence?
Automatic Mimicry (sub-heading)
-Like the chameleon lizards that take on the color of their surroundings, we humans take on the emotional tones of those around us. We are natural mimics, unconsciously imitating others' expressions, postures, and voice tones.
-the chameleon effect (mimicking someone else's behavior)
- Automatic mimicry helps us to empathize- to feel what others are feelings. But mimicry can sometimes lead to tragedy (After Columbine shooting, a lot of threats continued in other states).
Conformity and Social Norms (sub-heading)
-Suggestibility and mimicry are subtle types of conformity.
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard; Asch had an experiment in which people conformed on an answer to which line was closest to the standard line. We are more likely to conform when we are made to feel incompetent or insecure, are in a group with at least 3 people, are in a group in which everyone else agrees, admire the group's status and attractiveness, have not made a prior commitment to any response, know that others in the group will observe our behavior, and are from a culture that strongly encourages respect for social standard.
-Frequently, we conform to avoid rejection or to gain social approval. Other times, we conform because we want to be accurate.
-Conformity rates are lower in individualistic countries.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Obedience: Following Orders (heading)
What did Milgram's obedience experiments teach us about the power of social influence?
- Milgram knew that people often give in to social pressures, but he wanted to know how they responded to commands. He performed the electric shock experiment in which if one person didn't get a question right, the other person would give the shock. More than 60 percent complied fully to the research conductor's commands- right up to the last switch. ; Same thing happened with women and with other experiments that replicated the experiment. ; the power of legitimate, close-at-hand authorities was apparent among those who followed orders to carry out the Holocaust atrocities.
Lessons from the Obedience Studies (sub-heading)
- These experiments demonstrated that strong social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty. Focusing on the end point we can hardly comprehend the inhumanity. Milgram exploited the foot-in-the-door effect, beginning with a little electricity and escalating step by step. The small action became justified, making the next act tolerable.
- In Milgram's experiments, those who resisted did so early. Cruelty foes not require devilish villains. All it takes is ordinary people corrupted by an evil situation.
Group Behavior (module heading)
How is our behavior affected by the presence of others?
- Triplett founds that adolescents would wind a fishing reel faster in the presence of someone doing the same thing.
Social Facilitation (heading)
- Triplett's finding of strengthened performance in others' presence- is called social facilitation. ; when others observe us, we become aroused, and this arousal amplifies our other reactions.
improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. ; Further studies revealed that the presence of others sometimes helps and sometimes hinders performance (like when learning nonsense syllables). Having people around strengthens our most likely response- the correct one on an easy task, an incorrect one on a difficult task.; this contributes to the home advantage for a sports team; In experiments, when participants have been seated close to one another, they liked a friendly person more and an unfriendly person less.
Social Loafing (heading)
- When blindfolded people seated in a group clapped or shouted as loud as they could while hearing (through headphones) other people clapping our shouting loudly. When they thought they were part of a group effort, the participants produced about 1/3 less noise than when clapping or shouting alone. ; three things cause social loafing, (1) people acting as part of a group feel less accountable, and therefore worry less about what others think, (2) Group members may view their individual contributions as dispensable, and (3)When group members share equally in the benefits, some may slack off.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
- sometimes the presence of others can do both social facilitation and social loafing. This process of losing self-awareness and self-restraint, called deindividuation, often occurs when group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous. ; happens during riots, and with that KKK experiment in which women who dressed in KKK clothing (hoods over their faces) delivered more shocks than the control group with no KKK clothing.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Group Polarization (heading)
What are group polarization and groupthink, and how much power do we have as individuals?
- Initial differences between groups of college students tend to grow as time goes on. Similarly, gender differences tend to widen over time.
- In each case, the beliefs and attitudes we bring to a group grow stronger as we discuss them with like-minded others. Group polarization can feed extremism and even suicide terrorism Analysis of terror organizations reveals that the terrorist mentality begin slowly, among people who share a grievance. As they interact in isolation, their views become more and more extreme. Separation + Conversation = polarization.
- The Internet is a social amplifier in a sorts. By linking and magnifying the inclinations of like-minded people, the Internet can be very, very bad, but also very, very good.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
- An example of this is the Bay of Pigs fiasco. President Kennedy sent in CIA-trained Cuban exiles to invade Cuba, but they were found out when they got there. The reason for this poor decisioning was because of the soaring moral of the recently elected president. The group members part of the decisions suppressed their opposing views. Since no one spoke strongly against the idea, everyone assumed the support was unanimous.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. ; Group think- fed by overconfidence, conformity, self-justification, and group polarization- contributed to other fiascos as well like the failure to anticipate the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the U.S. Watergate cover-up. ; Despite the dangers of groupthink, two heads are better than one in solving problems.
The Power of Individuals (heading)
- Social control and personal control interact. Committed individuals can sway the majority and make social history.
- The power of one or two individuals to sway majorities is minority influence. When you are the minority, you are far more likely to sway the majority if you hold firmly to your position and don't waffle.
Cultural Influences (heading)
- Other animals exhibit the rudiments of culture.
- Thanks to our mastery of language, we humans enjoy the preservation of innovation. Across cultures, we differ in language, our monetary systems, and our sports.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Variation Across Cultures (sub-heading)
- Humans in varied cultures nevertheless share some basic moral ideas. Yet each cultural group also evolves its own norms.
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. When we don't understand what's expected or accepted, we may experience culture shock.
Variation Over Time (sub-heading)
- Culture has changed over the years especially as technology has developed.
Prejudice and Discrimination (module heading)
What is prejudice? What are its social and emotional roots?
- Prejudice is a three-part mixture of beliefs, emotions, and predispositions to action. Prejudice is a negative attitude. Discrimination is a negative behavior.
-Yet as overt prejudice wanes, subtle prejudice lingers.
- In most places in the world, gays and lesbians cannot comfortably acknowledge who they are and whom they love.
- Studies have shown that most people feel more positively about women in general than they do about men. This explains why people prefer slightly feminized computer-generated faces to slightly masculinized faces.
an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
Social Roots of Prejudice (sub-heading)
- Social Inequalities: The just-world phenomenon enables the rich to see both their own wealth and the poors' misfortune as justly deserved.
- Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup: An ingroup bias is a favoring of our group. The urge to distinguish enemies from friends predisposes prejudice against strangers.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity
"Them"- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
the tendency to favor our own group.
Emotional Roots of Prejudice (sub-heading)
-Scapegoat theory: when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide a target for anger.
-Evidence for the scapegoat theory comes from high prejudice levels among economically frustrated people.
- Negative emotions nourish pejudice.
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
Cognitive Roots of Prejudice (sub-heading)
What are the cognitive roots of prejudice?
-Forming Categories: One way we simplify our world is to categorize. Which is why we see Obama as black rather than a mix of white and black as his mother is white. The Chinese-Caucasian face study.
- In categorizing people into groups, we often stereotype them. We recognize how greatly we differ from other individuals in our groups. "They" seem to act alike, while "we" are more diverse.
Remembering Vivid Cases: Vivid (violent_ cases are more readily available to our memory and feed our stereotypes.
- Believing the World is Just: Hindsight bias is also at work here. Blaming the victim also serves to reassure people that it couldn't happen to them.
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect or the own-race bias.
Aggression (module heading)
How does psychology's definition of aggression differ from everyday usage? What biological factors make us more prone to hurt one another?
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
The Biology of Aggression (heading)
- biology does influence aggression. We can look for biological influences at 3 levels- genetic, neural , and biochemical.
Genetic Influences (sub-heading)
-Identical twins will often show similarities if one is aggressive.
Neural Influences (sub-heading)
- There is no one spot in the brain that controls aggression. But animals and human brains have neural systems that, given provocation, will either inhibit or facilitate aggressive behavior.
- Radio-controlled electrode in the brain of the domineering leader of a caged monkey colony. A neurosurgeon implanted an electrode in the amygdala of a mild-mannered woman and when switched became aggressive. Studies of violent criminals show diminished activity in the frontal lobes.
Biochemical Influences (sub-heading)
- The hormone testosterone circulates in the bloodstream and influences the neural systems that control aggression. Men more than women tend to have wide faces, a testosterone-linked trait; rather, than roundish or long faces.
-Another drug- alcohol- unleashes aggressive responses to frustration. Aggression-prone people are more likely to drink, and they are more likely to become violent when intoxicated. Unless people are distracted, alcohol tends to focus their attention on a provocation rather than on inhibitory cues.
Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression (heading)
What psychological and social-cultural factors may trigger aggressive behavior?
Aversive Events (sub-heading)
-In lab experiments, those made miserable have often made others miserable. Frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression. Study on MLB pitchers hitting batters.
-Other aversive stimuli like temperature and crowding can also evoke hostility. In baseball games, the number of hit batter rises with temperature.
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Reinforcement and Modeling (sub-heading)
-In situations where experience has taught us that aggression pays, we are likely to act aggressively again.
- One aggression-replacement program worked with juvenile offenders and gang members and their parents. It taught both generations new ways to control anger. The youths' re-arrest rates dropped.
- For example, crime rates are higher in countries marked by a greater disparity between rich and poor.
- Violence can also vary by culture within a country: as with the White Americans in southern towns settled by Scots-Irish herders versus the more peaceful Puritan and Quaker farmers in New England towns.
Media Models for Violence (sub-heading)
- High pornography consumption also has predicted greater sexual aggressiveness among university men. People heavily exposed to televised crime see the world as more dangerous. Viewing pornography leads viewers to trivialize rape, devalue their partners, and engage in uncommitted sex.
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
Do Violent Video Games Teach Social Scripts for Violence? (sub-heading)
- Research found that playing violent video games increased aggression. Young adolescents who play a lot of violent video games see the world as more hostile. It seems that hostile kids are just not naturally drawn to such games.
-Like so much else, aggression is a biopsychosocial phenomenon.
Attraction (module heading)
The Psychology of Attraction (heading)
Why do we befriend or fall in love with some people but not others?
-There are three ingredients for our liking for one another: proximity, attractiveness, and similarity.
- Proximity- geographic nearness- is friendship's most powerful predictor. Proximity breeds liking because of the mere exposure effect. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking for them.
- The most attractive people are sometimes the ones seen most often. The phenomenon would come as no surprise to the young Taiwanese man who wrote more than 700 letters to his girlfriend, urging her to marry him. She did marry- the mail carrier.
- We like other people when their faces incorporate some morphed features of our own.
-Evolution may therefore have hard-wired into us the tendency to bond with those who are familiar.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
Physical Attractiveness (sub-heading)
-Physical appearance affects our first impressions. Studies show that a man's looks do affect women's behavior. Speed-dating experiments confirm that attractiveness influences first impression for both sexes.
-Attractive, well-dressed people are more likely to make a favorable impression on potential employers, and they tend to be more successful in their jobs.
- People's attractiveness is surprisingly unrelated to their self-esteem and happiness. Second, strinkingly attractive people are sometimes suspicious that praise for their work may simply be a reaction to their looks. Less attractive people are more likely to accept praise as sincere.
- Beauty is in the eye of the culture. Americans now spend more on beauty supplies than on education and social services combined. Men in many cultures, judge women as more attractive if they have youthful, fertile appearance, suggested by a low waist-to-hip ratio. Faces tend to be the better predictor of overall physical attractiveness. An average face is considered attractive because they are symmetrical.
-Most people perceive others with appealing personality traits as more physically attractive.
-Friends and couples are far more likely to share common attitudes, beliefs, and interests. Dissimilarity often fosters disfavor.
- These three factors are not the only determinants of attraction. We als like those who like us. This is especially so when our self-image is low.
-Reward theoy of attraction: we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us.
Romantic Love (heading)
How does romantic love typically change as time passes?
Passionate Love (sub-heading)
- A key ingredient of passionate love is arousal. The two-factor theory assumes that emotions have two ingredients - physical arousal and cognitive appraisal and that arousal from any source can enhance one emotion depending on how we interpret and label the arousal.
-Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder. (the bridge experiment in which those that met with a woman on a swaying bridge high in the air later called the woman as opposed to those that met a woman on a low solid bridge)
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually resent at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate Love (sub-heading)
- As love matures, it becomes a steadier companionate love. In the most satisfying of marriages, attraction and sexual desire endue, minus the obsession of early stage romance. Non-Western cultures, where people rate love less important for marriage, do have lower divorce rates.
- One key to gratifying and enduring relationship is equity.
- Another vital ingredient of loving relationships is self-disclosure. A third key to enduring love is positive support. For happy couples in enduring relationships, positive interactions (compliments, touches, laughing) outnumber negative interactions (sarcasm, disapproval, insults).
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Altruism, Conflict, and Peacemaking (module heading)
When are people most- and least- likely to help?
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Bystander Intervention (sub-heading)
- We will only help if the situation enables us first to notice the incident, then to interpret it as an emergency, and finally to assume responsibility for helping. At each step, the presence of others can turn us away from the path that leads to helping.
- Research show that the best odds of our helping someone occur when the person appears to need and deserve help, the person i in some way similar to us, the person is a woman, we just observed someone else being helpful, we are not in a hurry, we are in a small town, we are feeling guilty, we are focused on others, and if we are in a good mood.
-Happy people are helpful people. It is also true that helpfulness breeds happiness.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
The Norms for Helping (sub-heading)
How do social exchange theory and social norms explain helping behavior?
-Social psychologists think we help because of social exchange theory. If rewards outweigh the costs, you will help.
- Others believe we help because we have been socialized to do so.
-We also learn a social-responsibility norm: that we should help those that need our help.
-The highly religious, despite being poorer, were about 50 percent more likely to report having donated money to a charity in the last month.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
an expectation that people will help those needing their help.
Conflict and Peacemaking (heading)
Elements of Conflict (sub-heading)
How do social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict?
- The elements of conflict are much the same.
- Social Traps: Many real-life situations similarly pit our individual interests against our communal well-being. Individual whalers reasoned that the few whales they took would not threaten the species. Given effective regulations, communication, and awareness, people more often cooperate.
-Enemy Perceptions: Those in conflict have a tendency to form diabolical images of one another (mirror-image perception). Perceptions can become self-fulfilling prophecies. They may confirm themselves by influencing the other country to react in ways that seem to justify them.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
Promoting Peace (sub-heading)
How can we transform feelings of prejudice, aggression, and conflict into attitudes that promote peace?
- Contact: When contact is non-competitve and between parties of equal status, it typically helps to put two conflicting parties into close contact. But sometimes, contact is not enough as shown in lunchroom settings in which people group up by race in desegregated schools.
- Cooperation: Cooperative contact can reduce conflict. In the classroom as in the sports arena, members of interracial groups who together on projects come to feel friendly toward one another.
-Communication: When real-life conflicts become intense, a third-party mediator may facilitate much needed communication. Mediators can sometimes lead a conflict into a mutually beneficial resolution.
-Conciliation: When conflicts intensify, image become more stereotyped and judgments more rigid. In lab experiments, small concilitory gestures- a smile, a touch- have allowed both parties to begin edging down the tension ladder. Also GRIT.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Stanford psychologist that randomly assigned some volunteers to be guards. Others became prisoners, locked in cells. For a day or two, the volunteers self consciously played their roles. Then the stimulation became real. Most guards developed disparaging attitudes. One by one, the prisoners broke down or rebelled.
He came up with cognitive dissonance theory, which says that we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions.
He devised a simple test to test conformity. The experiment was when a person had to answer what line was most similar to the standard line. When others gave the wrong answer, about a third of the time the person went with the rest of the group's answer.
A social psychologist that wanted to test if people responded to outright commands. He performed the shock experiment in which if someone in another room got an answer wrong, you would give a shock to him and increase in voltage each time. He also found out when obedience was highest.
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