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39 terms

Ch7 set1 org, impulse, reflex

Organization, Nerve Impulse, Reflex
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Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
nerves that extend from brain and spinal cord
spinal nerves
carry impulses to and from spinal cord
cranial nerves
carry impulses to and from brain
sensory (afferent) neurons
carry impulses to CNS (integration center)
motor (efferent) neurons
carry impulses away from CNS to organs (effector)
sensory receptor
responds to stimulus
somatic nervous system
voluntary control (skeletal muscles)
autonomic nervous system
involuntary control (smooth and cardiac muscles)
astrocytes
provides neurons with nutrients
microglial
cleans up debris in and around neuron
ependymal cells
keeps cerebrospinal fluid moving & cushions CNS
oligodendrocytes
produces myelin sheath in CNS
satellite cells
protects and cushions cell bodies in PNS
Schwann Cells
forms myelin sheath in PNS
Nissl substance
rough ER
neurofibrils
maintain shape of cell body
dendrites
carries impulses TO cell body
axons
carries impulses AWAY from cell body
axon terminals
storage of neurotransmitters
synaptic cleft
gap between neurons
nodes of Ranvier
gaps between Schwann cells
cutaneous sense organs
sense receptors for pain, temperature, pressure (in the skin)
proprioceptors
sense receptors that detect stretch or tension (in muscles and tendons)
interneurons
bridge between sensory neuron and motor neuron
polarized
plasma membrane of a resting neuron
depolarization
influx of sodium ions that changes polarity of membrane
action potential (nerve impulse)
transmitted signal; all-or-none response
repolarization
sodium-potassium pump restores initial concentration of ions
neuron-to-neuron communication
release of neurotransmitter from one neuron to another
reflex
rapid, predictable, involuntary response to a stimulus
reflex arcs
reflexes occur over neural pathways that involve both PNS and CNS
somatic reflexes
reflexes that stimulate skeletal muscles
autonomic reflexes
reflexes that stimulate smooth and cardiac muscles
first step of reflex arc
sensory receptor in reflex arc
second step of reflex arc
sensory neuron in reflex arc
third step of reflex arc
integration center in reflex arc
fourth step of reflex arc
motor neuron in reflex arc
fifth step of reflex arc
effector organ in reflex arc