CNS Anatomy Review

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Terms in this set (86)
white matter-found deeper in the brain tissue -contains nerve fiber axonscentral nervous system (CNS)brain and spinal cordperipheral nervous system (PNS)-cranial, spinal and peripheral nervesneuronfunctional unit of nervous systematrocytes and oligodendrocytes2 types of neuroglia in *CNS*astrocytes-blood brain barrier -structural support of neurons -control interstitial environnementoligodendrocytes-myelin of neurons, CNSSchwann cellsneuroglia in *PNS*?Schwann cells-myelin of neurons, *PNS*cerebrum-consists of 2 hemispheres: right and left -responsible for integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initials and coordination of voluntary activity in the body -regulates temperaturediencephalonthalamus and hypothalamusbasal gangliacaudate, putamen, globus paliduslimbic systempart of the brain involved in our behavior and emotional responsescerebellumhelps coordination and movement related to motor skillsbrainstemmidbrain, pons, medulla oblongatacorpus collosuma large bundle of myelinated nerve fibers that *connect the two brain hemispheres* permitting communication between the right and left sides of the braincerebrum-paired hemispheres -separated by *longitudinal fissure* -connected by corpus callosum, anterior commissure -sulci, gyri general functions: conscious though, intellectual functions, memory storage and retrieval, complex motor actionsfrontal parietal temporal occipital4 lobes of the cerebrum?sulcusa groove in the braingyrusa ridge or fold in the brainanterior commissurea collection of nerve fibers that cross the midline of the spinal cord and transmit information from or to the contralateral side of the braincentral sulcusseparates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobepostcentral gyrus-located behind the central sulcus -responsible for proprioception in the parietal lobepre central gyrus-located in front of the central sulcus -controls volitional movements in the frontal lobelateral sulcusa deep fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobesfrontal lobes-planning, executing leaned behaviors -modulates social behaviors -expressive language -dominent hemisphere: Broca's area -memory -motor function -tasteBroca's areaknown as the motor speech area; located in the frontal lobelanguagecommunication with words and symbolsspeecharticulation of words and languagedysarthriaslurred speechparietal lobes-sensory function -visuospatial perception -dominant hemisphere: calculations, wiring, right left orientation, finger recognition, among, word recognitiontemporal lobesdominant hemisphere: -auditory perception -receptive components of language (Wernicke's area) -emotion -smelloccipital lobesvisionthalamus-essential in gating, processing and transfer of almost all sensory information into the brainhypothalamus-essential to motivation -regulates hormone release -homeostasis, maternal behavior, circadian rhythmbasal ganglia-caudate, putamen, globus pallidus -vital to coordination of fine movementslimbic system-amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus functions: emotions, motivations, memoriescerebellum-2 hemispheres functions: coordination of voluntary movement, balance,e muscle tonebrainstem-junction between the brain and spinal cordmidbrain (CN II, IV)-controls, coordinates many sensory and motor functionspons (CN V, VI, VII, VIII)-directs information between cortex and cerebellummedulla (CN IX, X, XI, XII)-essential to breathing, digestion, heart rate and blood pressureoptic chiasmwhere CNs intermingle; sits on top of the pituitary; a pituitary tumor will push up on this and cause vision losscorticospinal tractmain pathway; motorcorticospinal tract-begins in primary motor cortex, descends through cerebrum and brainstem -crosses over at pyramids decussation at spin-medullary junction -synapse with anterior horn cells in spinal cordupper motor neuronthe neuron that begins in the motor cortex and crosses over and enters into the skeletal musclelower motor neuronthe neuron that starts after the decussationupper motor neuronupper motor neuron or lower motor neuron? -weakness / paralysis -minimal or no atrophy -spasticity; increase muscle tone -hyperreflexia, clonus, + Babinskilower motor neuronupper motor neuron or lower motor neuron? -weakness / paralysis - does have + atrophy, fasciculations -hypotonia / flaccid -hyporeflexia or absent DTRposterior columns anterolateral pathways2 sensory pathways?posterior columnswhich type of column? -proprioception -vibration -vine discriminative touchanterolateral pathwayswhich type of column? -pain -temperature -crude touchventricles_____ are fluid filled cavities within the brain; cerebrospinal fluid2 lateral third fourthwhat are the 4 ventricles?CSF-surrounds exposed surfaces of CNS functions: -cushion and support brain -transports nutrient, chemical messengers, wastechoroid plexus-specialized cells that produce CSF -500ml/d -total volume of CSF at any given time =150dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater3 layers of the meninges?dura materwhich layer of the meninges? -2 layers, blood vessels and dural sinuses forms: -falx cerebri -tentorium cerebelli -falxc erebelli -diaphragma sellaearachnoid materwhich layer of the meninges? -middle layer -web likepia materwhich layer of the meninges? -attached to surface of brainfalx cerebri-the largest of the 4 portions of the dura matter; separates the two cerebral hemispherestentorium cerebelli-the second largest dural reflection; extends over the posterior cranial fossa; separating the occipital and temporal cerebral hemisphere from the cerebellum and brainstemfalx cerebelli-the small midline fold of dura mater projecting anteriorly from the skill and into the space between the cerebellar hemispheresdiaphragma sellae-a sheet of dura mater that forms the roof of the pituitary fossaanterior chorodidal, ACA, MCAwhat includes the vascular supply of internal carotid arteries and their branches? -*anterior circulation*MCA (middle cerebral artery)_____ is the *largest* intracerebral arteryMCA (middle cerebral artery)_____ supplies: -almost entire convex surface of brain; lateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, basal ganglia, internal capsule, insulaanterior choroidal_____ _____ supplies lateral thalamus and posterior limb of internal capsuleACA (anterior cerebral artery)_____ supplies medial surface of frontal and parietal lobed, anterior corpus callosum, anterior diencephalonvertebral a PICA basilar AICA superior cerebellar posterior cerebral arterywhat blood supply does the *posterior circulation / vertebrobasilar* consist of?vertebral a-first branch of subclavian artery -joint to form basilar arteryPICA-usually arise from vertebral -supples inferior cerebellum, lateral medullabasilar-perforating branches supple base of ponsAICA-originates from basilar -supplies rostral medulla, cerebellum, basis pontissuperior cerebellar-originates from basilar -supplies dorsolateral midbrain, superior cerebellum, superior cerebellar peduncleposterior cerebral artery-usually a terminal branch of basilar -supplies inferoposterior temporal lobes, Pareto-occipital lobes