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Ivan Pavlov

Classical Conditioning

B. F. Skinner

Operant conditioning working with rats and pigeons in skinner boxes

Negative Reinforcers

Regulate escape and avoidance learning

Domjan argues

Researchers focus on arbitrary CS has led to a distorted picture of the principles of conditioning


Studies of latent learning suggested that cognitive processes contribute to conditioning

Operant Conditioning

involves largely voluntary responses that are governed by their consequences

According to Bandura

Reinforcement influences which responses one will preform more than it influences the acquisition of new responses

First step in self-modification

Specifying the target behavior to be increased or decreased

Second step in self-modification

Gathering baseline data on the initial rate of the target response

Third step in self-modification

Design a program using procedures such as reinforcement, control of antecedents, and punishment

Fourth step in self-modification

Executing and evaluating your program


enriches encoding by linking a stimulus to other information


Reconceptualized short-term memory as working memory consisting of 4 modules

4 Modules of short-term memory

Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, and episodic buffer


An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event

Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)

models of memory assest that specific memories corresponds to particular patterns of activation in connectionist networks

Tip-of-the tongue phenomenon

Demonstrates retrieval failure


Showed that memory is partially reconstructive


Early studies of nonsense syllables suggested that people forget very rapidly


Due to ineffective encoding


involves the motivated forgetting of painful or unpleasant memories


Research suggests that memory traces may reflect alteration in the strength of synaptic connections at specific locations

Medial Temporal Lobe

Memory system may be responsible for the consolidation of memories

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to reshape one's interpretation of the past to fit with known outcomes

Source Monitoring Error

A memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source

Reality Monitoring Error

Whether memories are based on external or internal sources

Sue Savage Rumbaugh

Worked Kanzi suggests that some animals are capable of some basic language acquisition


Eastern cultures exhibit a more holistic cognitive style, whereas Western cultures display a more analytical cognitive style

Simon's Theory

Suggest that human decision strategies are simplistic and often yield irrational results


Argues that people in modern societies suffer from choice overload, which undermines their well-being


Argues that people largely depend on fast and frugal decision heuristics that are adaptive in the real world


Refers to the degree to which there is evidence that a test measures what it was designed to measure

Criterion Related Validity

Crucial when tests are used to predict performance

Construct Validity

Crucial when a test is designed to measure a hypothetical construct

Sir Francis Galton

First crude efforts to devise intelligence tests and believed that intelligence was determined by heredity

Drudge Theory

Extraordinary achievement depends on intensive training and hard work


Occurs when a hypothetical construct is treated as though it were a tangible object

Incentive Theory

Emphasizes how external goals energize behavior


type of regulation that depends on insulin, ghrelin, CCK, and leptin secretions


Demonstrated that gender differences exist in mating preferences that largely transcend cultural boundaries


Pioneered the use of TAT to measure achievement motivation


Seems to be the hub of the neural circuits that process fear

Ekman and Friesen

Identification of emotion based on facial expressions

James-Lange Theory

Asserts that emotions result from one's perception of autonomic arousal

Cannon-Bard Theory

Emotions originate in subcortical areas of the brain

Schachter's Two Factor Theory

People infer emotion from the arousal and then label the emotion in accordance with their cognitive explanation for the arousal

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