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46 terms

Chapter 6-10 in Weiten

STUDY
PLAY
Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning
B. F. Skinner
Operant conditioning working with rats and pigeons in skinner boxes
Negative Reinforcers
Regulate escape and avoidance learning
Domjan argues
Researchers focus on arbitrary CS has led to a distorted picture of the principles of conditioning
Tolman
Studies of latent learning suggested that cognitive processes contribute to conditioning
Operant Conditioning
involves largely voluntary responses that are governed by their consequences
According to Bandura
Reinforcement influences which responses one will preform more than it influences the acquisition of new responses
First step in self-modification
Specifying the target behavior to be increased or decreased
Second step in self-modification
Gathering baseline data on the initial rate of the target response
Third step in self-modification
Design a program using procedures such as reinforcement, control of antecedents, and punishment
Fourth step in self-modification
Executing and evaluating your program
Elaboration
enriches encoding by linking a stimulus to other information
Baddeley
Reconceptualized short-term memory as working memory consisting of 4 modules
4 Modules of short-term memory
Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, and episodic buffer
Schema
An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)
models of memory assest that specific memories corresponds to particular patterns of activation in connectionist networks
Tip-of-the tongue phenomenon
Demonstrates retrieval failure
Bartlett
Showed that memory is partially reconstructive
Ebbinghaus
Early studies of nonsense syllables suggested that people forget very rapidly
Forgetting
Due to ineffective encoding
Repression
involves the motivated forgetting of painful or unpleasant memories
Kandal
Research suggests that memory traces may reflect alteration in the strength of synaptic connections at specific locations
Medial Temporal Lobe
Memory system may be responsible for the consolidation of memories
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to reshape one's interpretation of the past to fit with known outcomes
Source Monitoring Error
A memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source
Reality Monitoring Error
Whether memories are based on external or internal sources
Sue Savage Rumbaugh
Worked Kanzi suggests that some animals are capable of some basic language acquisition
Nisbett
Eastern cultures exhibit a more holistic cognitive style, whereas Western cultures display a more analytical cognitive style
Simon's Theory
Suggest that human decision strategies are simplistic and often yield irrational results
Schwartz
Argues that people in modern societies suffer from choice overload, which undermines their well-being
Gigerenzer
Argues that people largely depend on fast and frugal decision heuristics that are adaptive in the real world
Validity
Refers to the degree to which there is evidence that a test measures what it was designed to measure
Criterion Related Validity
Crucial when tests are used to predict performance
Construct Validity
Crucial when a test is designed to measure a hypothetical construct
Sir Francis Galton
First crude efforts to devise intelligence tests and believed that intelligence was determined by heredity
Drudge Theory
Extraordinary achievement depends on intensive training and hard work
Reification
Occurs when a hypothetical construct is treated as though it were a tangible object
Incentive Theory
Emphasizes how external goals energize behavior
Hormonal
type of regulation that depends on insulin, ghrelin, CCK, and leptin secretions
Buss
Demonstrated that gender differences exist in mating preferences that largely transcend cultural boundaries
McClelland
Pioneered the use of TAT to measure achievement motivation
Amygdala
Seems to be the hub of the neural circuits that process fear
Ekman and Friesen
Identification of emotion based on facial expressions
James-Lange Theory
Asserts that emotions result from one's perception of autonomic arousal
Cannon-Bard Theory
Emotions originate in subcortical areas of the brain
Schachter's Two Factor Theory
People infer emotion from the arousal and then label the emotion in accordance with their cognitive explanation for the arousal