Global History & Geography 1 (Grade 9/Freshman Review)
Terms in this set (38)
study records of past events.
Study the Earth's surface and it's impacts on humans.
refers to many physical land features
is another way of describing weather.
Show countries, their borders, and capital cities.
Show topography ()land features such as mountains, rivers, deserts, lakes, etc.)
Study how societies use available resources.
Study past and present human cultures.
are a type of anthropologists, who examine the culture of past human societies through the analysis of physical remains (artifacts).
A firsthand record of a historical event created by an eyewitness who actually experienced the event. (Examples- Diaries, photographs, artifacts,
A secondhand record of a historical event created by a person who did
NOT actually experience the event (Examples- Textbooks, encyclopedias, biographies).
Neolithic Age (8000-3000 BC)
A) Also called the "New Stone Age."
B) Key developments of this period:
1) Humans first discovered how to perform agriculture (farm) and domesticate (raise)
animals for food and drink.
2) Humans switched from being nomads (people who wander from place to place hunting
and gathering for food) to being settled farmers who lived in permanent villages.
3) Farming created a steady food supply (called a food surplus).
4) The permanent villages created during the Neolithic Age eventually turned into
civilizations (SEE NEXT TOPIC BELOW).
5) The development of farming during this period was so important for humans that it is
often called the "Neolithic Revolution."
A) A civilization is a complex and highly organized society that includes a government, social
classes, job specialization, a food surplus, writing, and religious beliefs.
B) Civilizations developed soon after humans discovered farming and settled down in permanent
villages during the Neolithic Age.
C) The first civilizations developed around 3000 B.C. in areas of land known as river valleys (low
areas of land next to rivers). The reason civilizations developed in river valleys is because these
areas had favorable geography:
1) The flooding of rivers deposited silt on nearby lands that created fertile soil for farming.
2) People irrigated (watered) their crops with water from the nearby rivers.
3) Rivers provided a source of transportation.
D) Early river valley civilizations developed around the following rivers: The Nile River in Egypt, the
Tigris River and Euphrates River in the Middle East, the Indus River in India, and the Yellow
River and Yangtze River in China (SEE BELOW FOR MORE INFO ON THESE CIVILIZATIONS)
Ancient River Valley Civilizations (c. 3000 - 1000 B.C.)
1) Location: Northeastern Africa
2) Major River: Nile River
3) Characteristics and achievements:
a) Developed hieroglyphics- Writing using picture symbols.
b) Constructed pyramids- Massive structures used to bury Egyptian Pharaohs (kings).
B) Mesopotamia (Sumer)
1) Location: Middle East
2) Major Rivers: Tigris River and Euphrates River
3) Characteristics and achievements:
a) Developed cuneiform- Writing system using wedge-shaped symbols.
b) Code of Hammurabi- Oldest written set of laws in the world that is known for its
strict (harsh) punishments of crimes (i.e.- "an eye for an eye").
C) Harappan Civilization
1) Location: India
2) Major River: Indus River
3) Achievements: The urban (city) areas of Harappan civilization were organized and well-
4) NOTE: Early societies in India (and areas of Southeast Asia) were very affected by
seasonal monsoons- Winds that brought rain needed to farm (but too much rain caused
1) Major Rivers- Yellow (Huang He) River and Yangtze River
2) Early Chinese societies were very isolated from other civilizations because China is
surrounded by natural boundaries (i.e.- mountains and deserts).
E) Common Features- Many ancient societies had important traits in common:
1) They existed in river valley regions.
2) They were all polytheistic- People believed in many gods associated with nature (i.e.- Sun
God, Rain God, Wind God, etc).
3) They often had traditional economic systems with the following characteristics:
a) Barter- Trade without using money.
b) Subsistence agriculture- Farming in which the crops are used only to feed the
farmer and his family. Food is not usually sold for a profit.
c) People have the same occupation (job) as their parents (usually related to
I. Introduction to Classical Civilizations
A) Classical civilizations are the societies that were more advanced and more recent than the ancient
civilizations discussed in the previous section.
B) Most classical civilizations had a Golden Age- A period of great achievements in art, literature,
math, and science.
C) Below is a brief outline regarding the classical civilizations that the Regents would like you to
II. Classical Civilizations (c. 1000 BC-500 AD)
1) Located on a peninsula with an irregular coastline in southeastern Europe.
2) Because Greece has a very mountainous geography, it was not one united civilization.
Instead, Greece was divided into many independent (separate) city-states. Each citystate
(or polis) had its own government and land. The two most famous city-states were
Athens and Sparta. They were very different societies.
a) A military society where men spent almost all of their lives training for warfare.
b) People in Sparta had very little freedom.
a) Athens is known for having the first democracy in the world. A democracy is a
form of government in which people can vote. Athens had a direct democracy,
which means that all citizens (adult males born in Athens) were able to vote on
b) Unlike Sparta, which focused mainly on war, Athens focused heavily on culture
and is known for its philosophers (Socrates, Aristotle, Plato) and writers (such as
a) The people of ancient Greece were polytheistic (believed in many nature gods).
b) The Olympic Games were held every 4 years in Greece to honor their god, Zeus.
6) Alexander the Great
a) Famous leader who conquered Greece, Egypt, Persia (Iran), and part of India.
b) Hellenstic culture- Alexander spread Greek (Hellenic) culture to all of the areas
that he conquered. The word Hellenistic is used to describe the mixture of Greek,
Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture that took place in the areas that Alexander
1) Located on the peninsula of Italy.
2) Rome began as a small city-state but eventually created a large empire by conquering the
regions that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea (i.e.- Western Europe, coast of Northern
Africa, Greece, Anatolia, and Western Asia).
3) Key Features and Achievements of the Roman Empire:
a) Trade and Transportation Networks- The Romans were able to unite the areas of
their empire and grow wealthy from trade because of the roads they built on land
and because the Mediterranean Sea connected areas within their empire.
b) Twelve Tables of Rome- Written set of laws that stated the rules of behavior for
members of Roman society. Although the laws favored the wealthy, these laws
created stability (order) since they were displayed in public for all to see.
c) Ideas about Law- Romans developed important legal ideas that we still use today
(such as "innocent until proven guilty").
d) Pax Romana- Means "Roman Peace." This was the 200-year Golden Age of Rome
in which there was extensive trade and great achievements in art, literature, math,
1) During the classical period, India was ruled by two successful dynasties (families of
rulers): The Maurya Dynasty and the Gupta Dynasty.
2) Maurya Dynasty
a) Asoka- Famous ruler of India who wrote the laws of India on tall rock pillars
(columns) that were displayed throughout India. Asoka converted to Buddhism
during his reign and is known for his kind treatment of people and animals.
3) Gupta Dynasty
a) The Gupta Dynasty is considered the Golden Age of India since there were many
achievements in art, literature, math, and science. Some of the achievements
include the invention of zero in mathematics, the development of Sanskrit
writing, and beautiful Buddhist paintings.
4) Caste System
a) The caste system was the social hierarchy of India in which people were born into
a social class (called a caste) and remained in that class for the remainder of their
lives. The four main castes were Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors),
Vaisyas (merchants and artisans), and Sudras (laborers). The lowest group
included people who were known as Untouchables (they had the worst
b) Since people could not move up or down in the caste system, it provided order
and structure to society.
c) The caste system is closely associated with the Hindu religion
1) During the classical period, China was also ruled by two main dynasties (families of
rulers): The Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty.
2) Qin Dynasty
a) Lasted only 15 years.
b) Qin rulers based their government on the philosophy of Legalism- Believes that
humans are evil and that harsh punishments are needed to keep order in society.
c) NOTE: Legalism was similar to the Code of Hammurabi in ancient Mesopotamia
since both noted that harsh punishments were necessary in society.
3) Han Dynasty
a) Lasted 400 years.
b) Key Features and Achievements:
1) Trade and Transportation Networks- As with the Roman Empire, the Han
Dynasty grew wealthy through trade because of the system of roads that
was developed throughout the region.
2) Civil Service System- System in which government positions were given
only to skilled people who passed difficult exams. The Chinese were the
first to use this kind of system.
E) Silk Road
1) The Silk Road was a long trade route that extended about 4,000 miles from China in the
East to the Mediterranean Sea in the West. The Silk Road connected the different
classical civilizations (and later civilizations as well).
2) Cultural Diffusion- Cultural diffusion is the exchange of goods and ideas between
societies. The Silk Road led the exchange of many products (like Silk) and religious ideas
(like Buddhism) between civilizations.
I. The Monotheistic Religions
1) Monotheistic religions believe in only one God.
2) The 3 main monotheistic religions are Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.
B) Codes of Conduct (Behavior)- All 3 monotheistic religions have codes of behavior issued by God
that state the religious and moral/ethical obligations (duties) of followers:
Ten Commandments- Code of behavior for Jews and Christians (i.e.- Do not kill, do not
steal, do not worship false gods, etc.).
1) Five Pillars- Code of behavior for Muslims (i.e.- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca, pray five
times daily, etc.).
II. Religions and Philosophies of India
1) Reincarnation- The idea that after humans die, their souls are reborn into another body.
Hindus believe that humans go through many rounds of reincarnation (death and
2) Karma- Karma refers to all of the good and bad deeds that one does during their lifetime.
Those who do good deeds develop good karma and are reborn at a higher level in the
next life. Those who do bad deeds develop bad karma and are reborn at a lower level in
the next life. Hindus follow the Caste System (SEE PREVIOUS SECTION ON INDIA)
and believe that the social class that they are born into in this life is based on the karma
they developed in a previous life.
3) The goal of Hindus is to achieve Moksha- Ending reincarnation and stopping the cycle of
death and rebirth.
1) Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama (also called the Buddha).
2) Buddhism is very similar to Hinduism. Both religions believe in Reincarnation and
3) The goal of Buddhists is to achieve Nirvana- Ending reincarnation and stopping the cycle
of death and rebirth (similar to Hindu concept of Moksha).
4) Buddhists believe that Nirvana can be achieved when people accept the Four Noble
Truths (the idea that all of life is suffering and that suffering is caused by our selfish
desires). People must work to end suffering and desire by following the Eightfold Path (a
code of behavior for Buddhists that requires them to resist evil, act in a kind manner,
III. Philosophies of China
1) Philosophy based on the idea that humans are evil and that harsh punishments are
needed in order to prevent crime and keep order in society.
1) Major philosophy of China. It's main teachings include:
a) The Five Relationships- The idea that every single person has specific roles and
obligations that must be followed in order to keep order and stability (calmness)
in society. For example, subjects must obey their ruler, wives must obey their
husbands, and children must obey their parents.
b) Filial Piety- The idea that people must honor and respect the elders of their
family (i.e.- children must be loyal and obedient to their parents).
IV. Nature Religions
A) Nature religions believe that both living and non-living things in nature (i.e.- trees, mountains,
rivers, rain, rocks, animals, etc.) have a spirit.
B) NOTE: The two most common nature religions are Shinto (practiced in Japan) and Animism
(practiced in Africa). The Regents wants you to know that both religions believe in nature spirits.
I. Byzantine Empire (c. 500-1453 AD)
A) After the western area of the Roman Empire was conquered by invading Germanic tribes in the
year 476 AD, the eastern portion of the Roman Empire survived and became known as the
B) Key features and achievements of the Byzantine Empire:
1) The people of the Byzantine Empire were mainly Greek in language and culture.
2) Constantinople- The capital city of the Byzantine Empire. It was a great location for
trade because it was located along major waterways and it was a crossroads of (link
between) Europe and Asia.
3) Eastern Orthodox Religion- This was the branch of Christianity that was practiced by the
people of the Byzantine Empire (the Hagia Sophia was a famous church in
4) Justinian Code- Written system of laws created by Emperor Justinian that was later
adopted by various European civilizations. It was largely based on laws of the Roman
5) Preservation of Greek and Roman Culture- The Byzantines preserved (saved) and passed
on important texts created by the Greeks and Romans.
C) Cultural Diffusion- The Byzantine Empire had a major influence on the neighboring civilization
of Russia. Through contact with the Byzantine Empire, Russia received:
1) The Eastern Orthdox Religion (which is still practiced in Russia today)
2) The Cyrillic Alphabet (writing system still used in Russia today)
I. Legal Systems
A) So far, a number of different legal systems have been discussed in this review packet. The 3 main
1) Code of Hammurabi- Written set of laws used in ancient Mesopotamia. It is known for its
harsh punishment of crimes (i.e.- "an eye for an eye").
2) Twelve Tables of Rome- Written set of laws used in Roman Empire. Laws favored the
3) Justinian Code- Written set of laws used in the Byzantine Empire. It was based on old
Roman laws and was later adopted by many countries in Europe.
B) NOTE: The Regents wants you to know the following about these 3 legal systems:
1) They are all standardized (written) sets of laws.
2) They each concern the relationship between the state (government) and the individual.
3) They all helped create stability (a calm and orderly society) since people were able to learn
what the laws were.
A) Monotheistic religion that believes in one God (called Allah).
B) Followers of Islam are called Muslims.
C) Koran (Qu'ran)- The Holy Book of Islam.
D) Five Pillars- Religious and moral/ethical duties and obligations that are required of all Muslims
(i.e.- Make a pilgrimage to Mecca, pray five times daily, etc.).
E) Muhammad (lived 570-632 AD)
1) The founder of Islam who was born in Mecca (the holiest city of Islam).
2) He is believed by Muslims to be the last of God's prophets (messengers to the people).
II. Golden Age of Islam (c. 700-1200 AD)
A) After Muhammad- Shortly after the death of Muhammad, Muslim armies swept out of the
Arabian peninsula and conquered vast areas of land that included much of the Middle East, the
northern coast of Africa, and even southern Spain.
B) During this period, the Islamic (or Muslim) world experienced a Golden Age- There were
amazing achievements in math, science, medicine, philosophy, and art. Some of the key
achievements of this period include:
1) The creation of medical encyclopedias.
2) Improvements in math (especially algebra).
3) Artwork that included calligraphy (beautiful writing), woolen carpets, and textiles.
I. Introduction to the Middle Ages (400-1400 AD)
A) The Middle Ages is the period of time in Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire and
before the Renaissance.
1) Political system of the Middle Ages in which kings throughout Europe gave land away to
nobles in return for their loyalty and military service.
2) Nobles that received land from the king had to serve as knights (warriors on horseback)
and fight when necessary. Knights had to follow chivalry (a code of behavior that stressed
loyalty and bravery).
3) Feudalism is considered to be a decentralized political system because kings gave away
much of their power to nobles, who each controlled their own local areas.
4) In the feudal system, land was the basis of wealth and power. Those with more land were
considered to be more wealthy and powerful.
5) Feudalism brought social stability, order, and structure to the Middle Ages.
1) During the Middle Ages, most people lived on manors (areas of land owned by a noble).
2) Each manor had homes, farmland, artisans, water, and serfs (peasants that could not
leave the land and who performed farm labor for the noble).
3) Since each manor was mostly self-sufficient (provided for its own needs), trade
decreased during the Middle Ages.
D) Religion- During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church (especially the Pope) was very
wealthy and influential in Western Europe.
II. Crusades (1100-1300)
A) The Crusades were the religious wars of the Middle Ages in which Christians from Europe fought
to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. The Holy Land is a sacred area of the Middle
East that includes the city of Jerusalem.
B) Causes of (reasons for) the Crusades:
1) European Christians believed they would be forgiven for their sins if they fought for God.
2) European Christians believed the Holy Land should not be controlled by Muslims.
3) Many poor Europeans wanted to escape from feudalism.
4) Many Europeans hoped to gain wealth from the Middle East.
C) Effects (results) of the Crusades:
1) After years of fighting, trade between Europe and the Middle East increased (Italian
cities such as Venice gained control over much of this trade since they
had a central location in the Mediterranean Sea).
2) Europeans learned about the many achievements that Muslims had made during their
Golden Age (i.e.- achievements in math, science, medicine, philosophy, and art).
3) Feudalism in Europe began to decline as many nobles had been killed and many serfs
I. Golden Age of China: The Tang and Song Dynasties (600s-1200s)
A) The Golden Age of China took place during the Tang and Song Dynasties. Like all Golden Ages,
this was a period of tremendous achievements in the arts, science, math, and literature.
B) Key achievements of the Tang and Song Dynasties:
1) The Chinese invented gunpowder (which was later adopted by civilizations in Europe
and the Middle East).
2) The Chinese invented the compass (which improved sailing/navigation by sea).
3) The Chinese invented block printing (a method of printing in which ink is placed on
carved wooden blocks that are pressed onto paper).
4) The Chinese created works of art using porcelain (beautiful clay).
C) Other key facts about the Tang and Song Dynasties:
1) The Chinese conducted long distance trade with other civilizations on land (using the
Silk Road) and by sea (from their coastal port city of Canton).
2) Cultural Diffusion- Buddhism became popular in China during this period as the ideas of
this religion entered China due to trade using the Silk Road.
3) The Chinese continued to use civil service exams to select highly qualified people to work
in their government.
TOPIC: EARLY JAPANESE HISTORY
A) Japan is located in East Asia and is considered to be an archipelago- A country that consists of a
group of islands (Japan is made up of 4 main islands)
B) Japan has a long and irregular (unsmooth/rough) coastline
C) Japan is made up mostly of mountains, which has made farming difficult.
1) Terrace Farming- In order to farm in the mountains, the Japanese had to dig and carve
flat areas (called terraces) into the sides of mountains. NOTE: The Inca of Peru (in
South America) used the same technique.
A) Shinto is the religion of Japan. It is a religion (similar to Animism in Africa) that believes all
living and non-living things in nature (such as trees, mountains, rivers, animals, etc.) have a
B) Later in Japan's history, Buddhism became popular as well. Today, most Japanese practice both
Shinto and Buddhism.
III. Influence of China on Japan
A) Cultural Diffusion- Early Japan was GREATLY influenced by contact with the neighboring Asian
civilization of China. Through contact with China, Japan received many important things:
1) Writing- Japan's first form of writing was influenced by Chinese writing.
2) Buddhism- The Japanese learned about the Buddhist religion from the Chinese.
3) Tea- The Japanese first learned how to cultivate (grow) tea from the Chinese.
IV. Japanese Feudalism
A) Similar to Europe during the Middle Ages, Japan developed a system of feudalism early in its
history. The feudal system worked like this:
1) Emperor and Shogun (military general)- They were the rulers of Japan.
2) Daimyo- They were the wealthy nobles who were given land by the emperor and Shogun
in return for loyalty and military service.
3) Samurai- They were the warriors of Japanese society. They pledged loyalty to the
Daimyo and had to fight when necessary. The samurai had a code of behavior called
Bushido (which required the samurai to be loyal to the Daimyo and to fight bravely in
B) NOTE: Japanese feudalism was very similar to European feudalism:
1) Japanese samurai and European knights both followed a code of behavior. Bushido was
the code of the Samurai and Chivalry was the code of the knights. Both codes
emphasized loyalty and bravery.
2) Japanese and European feudalism were both decentralized, which means that power was
given to many different local leaders instead of being concentrated in the hands of a
3) Because people in each society had a clear role to follow, feudalism brought structure,
order, and stability (calmness) to society.
TOPIC: AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS
I. Introduction to Africa
1) Africa has a very diverse (varied) geography that includes deserts (i.e.- the Sahara
Desert), savanna (grasslands), and rainforests.
2) Due to its many geographic features, Africa is a very diverse continent with many
different cultures. No two societies are alike.
3) NOTE: Africa is currently having problems with desertification (the spreading of desert
lands). The Sahara continues to grow, which reduces the amount of available farmland.
1) Animism is the traditional religion that is native to (began in) Africa. It is a religion
Shinto in Japan) that believes all living and non-living things in nature (such as trees,
mountains, rivers, animals, etc.) have a spirit.
C) Bantu Migrations (500 BC- 1500 AD)
1) This is one of the largest migrations (movements) of people in history.
2) Due to a shortage of land, the Bantu People scattered throughout southern Africa over the
course of 2,000 years.
3) Major effects (results) of the migration- As the Bantu people moved, they spread 3 things:
a) The Bantu language
b) Iron technology
c) Agricultural (farming) techniques
II. West African Civilizations (300-1400s)
A) Three of Africa's greatest civilizations all developed in West Africa. They are:
B) Mansa Musa- He was the most famous ruler of Mali. He is important for several reasons:
1) He was a devoted Muslim who helped spread Islam in West Africa.
2) He made a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
3) He turned the city of Timbuktu into a center of trade and Islamic learning.
C) NOTE: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai all grew very wealthy for the same reason: They were located
along the Trans-Saharan trade routes and participated in the Gold-Salt trade (i.e.- they
traded their gold for the salt that they needed to survive).
TOPIC: THE MONGOLS
I. The Mongols (1100s-1400s)
1) The Mongol people originated on the steppes (grassy plains) of Central Asia.
2) The Mongols lived in a harsh physical environment and survived as nomadic pastoralists-
They raised animals and migrated frequently in search of grazing lands for their animals.
1) Under the skilled military leadership of Genghis Khan, the Mongols conquered so much
land that they established the LARGEST EMPIRE in all of history.
2) At its height, the Mongol empire included China, Central Asia, Russia, and much of the
C) Marco Polo
1) Marco Polo was an Italian merchant who visited the Mongols in China and remained
there for almost 20 years.
2) After returning to Italy, Marco wrote down extensive information about his experiences
in China with the Mongols.
3) NOTE: The writings of Marco Polo are important for several reasons:
a) They are valuable primary sources that teach us about China during this period.
b) They increased the desire of Europeans to trade with China to obtain valuable
D) The Mongols are important for several reasons:
1) Trade and travel between Europe and Asia increased TREMENDOUSLY during Mongol
rule since the Mongols kept peace and prevented violence along trade routes (like the Silk
2) Influence on Russia
a) After they conquered Russia, the Mongols kept Russia isolated (removed) from
developments that were taking place in Western Europe.
b) The Mongols taught the Russians how to have a centralized government- A
strong government with one ruler in firm control.
3) The Mongols were the first foreign group to completely conquer China.
4) The Mongols developed a tribute system- Areas taken over by the Mongols were required
to give the Mongols money each year.
THE TRANSFORMATION OF WESTERN EUROPE
I. The Black Death (1347-1351)
A) The Black Death refers to the major disease (called bubonic plague) that killed 25 million people
in Europe (almost 1/3 of the population) during the late Middle Ages.
C) The disease started in East Asia (maybe China) and spread to Europe over trade routes such as
the Silk Road. The interaction of different groups of people helped spread the disease.
C) Major effects (results) of the Black Death:
1) Depopulation- The population of Europe decreased from 85 million to 60 million.
2) Feudalism continued to decline as serfs fled from manors for better opportunities.
3) Trade temporarily decreased.
II. The Renaissance (1400-1600)
A) The Renaissance was the Golden Age of Western Europe. The Renaissance had the following
1) Like all Golden Ages, there were amazing achievements in the arts, literature, and
2) Renaissance scholars studied art and books from ancient Greece and Rome.
3) Humanism- There was a focus on humans and life on earth instead of on God and
B) The Renaissance began in Italy because:
1) The Italian city-states (like Venice and Florence) had great economies. These areas
controlled Mediterranean trade and grew very wealthy. Much of this wealth was used to
C) Famous artists of the Renaissance include Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and
D) Niccolo Machiavelli- Famous author of the Renaissance who wrote a book called "The Prince,"
which is a guide for government leaders. Key ideas of this book include:
1) Rulers must have absolute power and do whatever is necessary to stay in power (even if
that means dishonest and cruel behavior).
2) "The end justifies the means"- Leaders must do whatever is necessary to help their
III. The Protestant Reformation (1500s)
A) The Protestant Reformation was the religious revolution that challenged the Catholic Church
and led to the further division of Christianity.
B) Causes of (reasons for) the Protestant Reformation:
1) Europeans were angry that the Catholic Church was too concerned with worldly issues
(i.e.- money and power).
2) Europeans were angry about indulgences- Reductions in punishment that were sold by
the Catholic Church.
C) Key leaders of the Protestant Reformation:
1) Martin Luther- German monk who created the 95 Thesis, which were 95 arguments
against the sale of indulgences.
2) Henry VIII- King of England who separated from the Catholic Church because he wanted
a divorce from his wife and the Catholic Church would not allow it.
3) John Calvin- Swiss reformer who believed in predestination, which is the idea that God
already knows who will be punished and who will be saved (i.e.- sent to Heaven).
D) Effects (results) of the Protestant Reformation:
1) The power of the Catholic Church (and the Pope) decreased.
2) The power of monarchs (kings) increased since they gained power over religion.
3) Religious unity in Europe came to an end- Before the Protestant Reformation, almost
everyone in Western Europe was Catholic. Now there were large numbers of Protestants
IV. The Printing Press
A) Invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
B) The printing press was important for several reasons:
1) It helped spread new ideas quickly.
2) It helped spread the Protestant Reformation since people like Martin Luther were able to
copies of their writings for others to read.
3) It increased literacy (the ability of people to read and write) since books were now easier
cheaper to obtain.
TOPIC: PRE-COLUMBIAN CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS
I. Pre-Columbian Civilizations (c. 300-1500s AD)
1) The pre-Columbian civilizations are the societies that developed in the Americas before the
arrival of the Europeans.
2) The 3 main pre-Columbian societies were the Maya, the Aztec, and the Inca. They were all
very organized, developed, and advanced civilizations.
B) The Maya
1) They lived in the lowland region of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America).
a) They developed a calendar and a form of writing.
b) Math- They invented the use of zero in math (like the Gupta of India).
C) The Aztec
1) They lived in Mesoamerica (Mexico) and established a large empire.
2) Tenochtitlan- Capital city of the Aztec Empire.
a) They used a calendar and a form of writing.
b) Chinampas- These were "floating gardens" that the Aztecs built in lakes in order to
farm since there was a shortage of fertile land.
D) The Inca
1) They lived in the Andes Mountains of Peru (in South America) and established a large
2) Machu Picchu- Most famous site of the Inca.
a) NOTE: In order to improve trade and transportation, the Inca developed a vast
(large network of roads (like the Romans) and footbridges in the Andes
b) Terrace Farming- Since the Inca lived in the mountains, they learned to farm by
cutting flat areas (called terraces) into the sides of mountains. NOTE: The Japanese
used a similar technique in order to farm.
E) NOTE: The Regents wants you to know that both the Aztecs and the Inca used creative
agricultural techniques (chinampas and terrace farming) in order to adapt to their geographic
F) The Aztecs and the Inca were both conquered by the Spanish when they arrived in the 1500s:
1) The Aztecs- Conquered by Hernan Cortez in 1521.
2) The Inca- Conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1532.
TOPIC: THE AGE OF EXPLORATION AND ENCOUNTER
A) The Age of Exploration and Encounter was the period in history when the Europeans began sea
voyages of exploration. During this period, Europeans reached the Americas and began to
colonize (take over) areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.
B) The two European countries that first began voyages of exploration were Spain and Portugal.
II. The Age of Exploration and Discovery (1400s-1600s)
A) Causes of (reasons for) the Age of Exploration:
1) Europeans wanted greater access to the spices and other products of Asia.
2) Europeans wanted to find sea routes to Asia since land routes were controlled by Muslims.
3) Improvements in navigational (sailing) technology made long sea voyages possible. These
improvements include the compass and astrolabe, cartography (the science of making
maps), and the lateen sail for ships.
B) Key Explorers include:
1) Bartholomeu Dias- First explorer to round the Cape of Good Hope (southern tip of Africa).
2) Vasco da Gama- First explorer to reach India by going around Cape of Good Hope.
3) Christopher Columbus- First explorer to reach the Americas.
4) Ferdinand Magellan- First explorer to circumnavigate (sail around) the globe.
C) Effects (results) of the Age of Exploration:
1) The Americas
a) The Spanish and Portuguese colonized (took over) land in the Americas. Lands
controlled by the Spanish and Portuguese were called colonies.
b) Encomienda System- A labor system in which the Native Americans were forced to
work on Spanish farming plantations (growing sugar) and in Spanish mines (getting
gold and silver). Spanish landowners had total control over the Native Americans.
c) Millions of Native Americans died due to the diseases (such as smallpox) brought
over by the Europeans.
a) Europeans took slaves from Africa to the Americas to work on farming plantations.
b) The voyage of slaves from Africa to the Americas was called the Middle Passage.
a) Mercantilism is the idea that colonies exist only to make the Mother Country (i.e.-
Spain and Portugal) wealthy.
b) Spain and Portugal tightly controlled trade with their colonies in the Americas in
order to make money. Europeans would take raw materials (like cotton) from their
American colonies and sell finished products (like clothing) back to the colonies.
4) Triangular Trade- This was the trade route taken by Europeans in the Atlantic Ocean.
Europeans traveled to Africa to get slaves, brought the slaves to their colonies in the
Americas, and then returned to Europe with goods from the Americas.
5) Columbian Exchange- This is the term used to describe the exchange of people, plants,
animals, ideas and technology between the "Old World" (Europe) and the "New World"
(North and South America) that took place as a result of exploration and colonization.
a) Items sent from Europe to the Americas include: Wheat, sugar, bananas, horses,
chickens and diseases (like smallpox and measles).
b) Items sent from the Americas to Europe include: Maize (corn), potatoes, beans,
squash, chili peppers, cocoa, and tobacco.
c) The Columbian Exchange is the ultimate example of cultural diffusion (the
exchange of goods and ideas between civilizations).
III. Commercial Revolution (1500s-1600s)
A) The term Commercial Revolution refers to the new forms of business that were introduced
during the Age of Exploration. These new forms of business included:
1) Joint-stock companies- Investors would combine money to help pay for trading projects.
2) The expansion (growth) of banking.
3) Capitalism- Form of business in which profits from one project are reinvested in other
projects in order to make more money.
TOPIC: THE TRAVELERS OF GLOBAL I
I. The Travelers of Global I
A) The Regents likes to ask questions about 3 men who each traveled thousands of miles. They are:
1) Marco Polo- Italian merchant who traveled to China (over the Silk Road) when it was ruled
by the Mongols.
2) Ibn Battuta- Arab/Muslim explorer who traveled a total of 75,000 miles and visited lands
in Africa, Asia, and Europe.
3) Zheng He- Chinese explorer of the Ming Dynasty who sailed the Indian and Pacific Oceans
to lands that included Southeast Asia, India, the western coast of Africa.
B) NOTE: These three individuals are important for several reasons:
1) They wrote extensively about their travels. These writings are valuable primary sources
that teach us about lands that they visited.
2) The contacts they made with other lands helped stimulate (increase) trade between
different regions of the world.
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