BIOL 220 - Chapter 1: Major Themes of A&P

Studying morphological similarities and evolutionary adaptations between animals help us understand our own anatomy
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 29
Terms in this set (29)
folding increases surface area, more surface area means more neuronsWhy is brain folding directly correlated with the capability of complex interactions?atoms < molecules < organelles < cells < tissues < organs < organ systems < organismList the hierarchy of complexity from atoms to organisms.- muscles (some people have genetic mutations that give them one extra or less muscle) - number of vertebrae (some people have fusion surgeries to merge them together) - number of organs - left/right reversal of organization (situs inversus)What are some examples of anatomical variation?- genetics - environmentWhat two factors affect variation?- dosage (variation for different individuals) - not al procedures and histology slides will be identical (need trained professionals who understand the science behind variation)Why is considering anatomical variation important for the medical field?HomeostasisMaintaining stability in a dynamic environmentHippocrates_____________ noticed the body's ability to self-restorerange (ex. 7.35-7.45 blood pH)Internal conditions are not always a specific value, instead they are a __________ of values.vitalHaving a correct pH is _________ to survival.98.5 - 98.6 degreesWhat is the average internal body temperature?- help keep variable close to set point - body senses changes - body reverses effects of changesWhy are negative feedback mechanisms important to maintain homeostasis?Nerve____________ cells in the brain monitor blood temperature.- If too hot → vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) - Still too hot → sweating mechanism - If too cold → vasoconstriction - Still too cold → shivering (muscle activity to generate heat)Explain the negative feedback mechanisms in maintaining body heat.- receptor detects the change - the integration center is where a decision is being made (in medulla) - effector is the structure that does the work that's responding to the change (doing the job to restore homeostasis)In feedback mechanisms, what are the roles of: - receptor - integration center - effectorPositive Feedback MechanismFeedback mechanism that amplifies change in the same direction?Fevers can be harmful if the temperature is too far away from the set pointWhat is an example of a harmful positive feedback mechanism?- During childbirth the uterus is contracting - Those contractions are pushing the fetus downwards into the cervix, causing dilation - Tissue in the cervix detecting the stretching happening and sends the information to the brain - Brain releases oxytocin - Oxytocin stimulates more contractionsExplain positive feedback in childbirth:- Chemical Concentration - Electrical Charge - Pressure - TemperatureGradients and flow represent differences in:down (move from high to low pressure/temperature)Movements occur _________ a gradient