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Comp. Anatomy Ch. 10
Terms in this set (41)
what does the appendicular skeleton consist of? 3
skeleton of the fins/limbs
what are modifications of a basic morphologic pattern seen in early bony fishes
what does it consist of? 2
-all osteichthyan pectoral girdles
-3 cartilages or endochondral bones
-4 or 5 membrane bones derived from dermal armor
coracoids, scapulae, and suprascapulae are...
what are separate adult features and are absent in therian mammals?
what is universal except for in species that lack forelimbs?
clavicles, cleithra, supracleithra, posttemporals and postcleithra are..
clavicles occur in all classes of bony vertebrates but are best developed in..
what is a tetrapod character retained in living reptiles and monotremes?
a midventral interclavicle of intramembranous origin
recent bony fishes have tended to lose the replacement bones of the..
tetrapods have tended to lose
what kind of bones ARENT in the pelvic girdle
the pelvic girdle of fishes consists of _ ___ ____that articulate laterally w/ a pelvic fin and usually meet ventrally in a symphysis.
the plates unite to form a ____ ___ in sharks and lungfishes
2 pelvic plates
in tetrapods, 2 ossification centers in each pelvic plate become..2
ischial and pubic bones
what braces the girdle against the vertebral column...1
ilium, ischium, and pubis unite to form an..
and what does in enclose?
innominate bone (os coxa) in mammals
-an obturator foramen
what is associated with the pelvic girdle midventrally that are in some urodeles
and in reptiles, monotremes, and marsupials?
prepubic (ypsiloid) cartilages
-epipubic & hypoischial cartilages
what does the sacrum and pelvic girdle of mammals and some reptiles constitute of?
a pelvic that encompasses a pelvic cavity
what are the 3 types of paired fins
fin fold fins (chondrichthyes)
ray fins (actinopterygii)
what consists of layered rows of basal and radial cartilages or bones?
skeleton of a generalized fin (paired or median)
what do lobed fins have?
-a central bony axis
ray fins have lost...
basals & radials
what do cartilaginous fishes have?
fibrous fin rays --> ceratotrichia
what do the rays of bony fishes (lepidotrichia) consist of?
jointed dermal bones
dorsal and anal fins are..
caudal fins are homocercal, heterocercal, hypo...depending on what?
depending on the direction taken by the notochord and vertebral column in the fin
Residual components of neural and hemal arches and spines of modified caudal vertebrae makes up what?
the basal skeleton of homocercal fins
origin of fins
tetrapod limbs are modifications of...
limb skeletons consist of (PEA)
propodium --> humerus/femur
epipodium --> radius/ulna/tibia/fibula
autopodium --> manus/pes
modifications of the manus and pes involve
-reduction in the # of bones
-disproportionate lengthening or shortening of segments
-and in some aquatic tetrapods, increase in # of phalanges
what has been reduced to 4 or fewer in modern amphibians?
-3 in birds
and as few as 1 in some ungulates
loss of digits is accompanied by
loss or reduction of associated carpals/metacarpals or tarsals/metatarsals
the most striking modifications of the manus are in...3
water adopted amniotes
and in ungulates
what are plantigrade digitigrade or unguligrade
ungulate foot are (3)
why have a reduced number of ankle bones in birds have fused with the tibia and metatarsals
to add an additional elongated segment to the hind limbs
what does an intratarsal joint adds?
adds flexibility of the pes
excepting sesamoid bones, bones of fins, and limbs are all...
how do most fishes swim?
anterior flippers, lateral undulation, sculling in marine tetrapods allow them to do what
or in cetaceans, galloping
of the limbless terrestrial tetrapods, what organism show the largest number of adaptations for locomotion?
modifications of what are among the adaptations that enable true flight?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Comp. Anatomy ch. 9
Comp, Anatomy Ch. 11
Comp. anatomy chapter 12
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