d) Open acceptance.
In order to have a contract, there must be both an offer and an acceptance. Even though an acceptance can occur in different ways, by speech, by writing, or by action, the actual acceptance is a required element of a contract. Under the UCC Sales Article, a binding contract may be present if the parties had intended to form a contract even though certain elements of the contract are missing. These open terms will be filled by specific provisions of the UCC, including provisions for open price, open delivery, or open quantity. Note that in the case of quantity, output contracts, requirements contracts, and exclusive dealing's contracts are enforceable though the actual quantity may not be known in advance.