A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
shoguns retained power through a hostage system, the spouses and children of important families were kept at the capital, society was organized into four social classes, time known as great peace.
forward-looking ruler who stayed abreast of events in Europe, introduced reforms to create European-style military units, murdered for those ideas
Sultan Abd al-Hamid II
ottoman sultan who accepted the reform constitution, but then quickly surpressed it, ruling as a Sultan for the rest of his reign
19th century young men who are educated in west and see that the Ottoman's are falling behind, think the way to catch up is to get rid of religion in ottoman politics, islam is private, do it at home
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)
"the sick man of Europe"
nickname given to the Ottoman Empire because of the frequent ethnic revolts and the rest of Europe picking away at it.
The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.
an antiwestern uprising, the Boxers lay seige to the foreign quarters in Pekking, they murdered foreigners and Christian Chinese
late 19th century movement in China and the Ottoman Empire to counter the challenge from the West;
treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
massive chineese rebellion that devasted much of the country between 1850 and 1864. Base on milleniuary teachings of Hong Xiquan