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AP EURO WW1
Terms in this set (73)
All Quiet on the Western Front
(1929) a novel written by Erich Maria Remarque illustrating the horrors of World War I and the experiences of veterans and soldiers. It was extremely popular, but also caused a lot of political controversy when it was first published, and was banned in Germany in the 1930's.
A peace program presented to the U.S. Congress by President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918. It called for the evacuation of German-occupied lands, the drawing of borders and the settling of territorial disputes by the self-determination of the affected populations, and the founding of an association of nations to preserve the peace and guarantee their territorial integrity. It was rejected by Germany. League of Nations was the 14th point in his plan
(1856-1924) President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points/protests wilson
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points/ protests wilson
Emperor Wilhelm II
German ruler, gets rid of bismarck, wants germany to be glorious and powerful, gave Austria-Hungary a "blank check," promising Germany's full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria-Hungary, last German emperor
Tsar Nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin. In WWI ordered a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary, forcing a chain reaction of mobilization.
Act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops"; Germany mobilized troops through Belgium, which cause GB to declare war on Germany
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946. 14th point on 14 point plan
Acquisition. The mandate system was a compromise between the Allies' wish to retain the former German and Turkish colonies and their pre-Armistice declaration that annexation of territory was not their aim in the war.
Germany swears to support Austria-Hungary in any actions it takes against Serbia. Issued by Emperor Welhelm II and his chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
At the end of World War I, this "war guilt" clause in the Versailles peace treaty assigned primary responsibility for the outbreak of war to Germany and ordered them to pay reparations for all damage subjected to the Allied government and people
Treaty of Versailles
1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air-force. 2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy (Joined 1915) , and US
Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
An alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years before World War I.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Propaganda
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters without warning. When Germany broke the Sussex Pledge to stop, US entered war
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield. Ineffective, long, and horrible conditions
a plan designed for Germany to avoid a two front war by invading Belgium to get to France. This however made Britain mad (due to secret alliance between Brits and Belgium) and declared war against Germany
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russians organize separate peace with Germans. Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans: Eastern Poland, Ukraine/Georgia, Finland, Baltic provinces. This ended Russian participation in the war.
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves. Part of 14 points
Royal Prince of Austria-Hungary that was murdered by Black Hand. This caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia and ally with Germany to start World War I.
No Man's Land
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous and filled with barbed wire
Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated
First Battle of the Marne
20 miles outside Paris the French halted the German advance and the beginning of the Western Front and trench warfare
Battle of Tannenburg
A huge German victory over Russian armies trying to invade, it sent the Russians reeling backwards and set a precedent for the next few years of Russian losses on the Eastern Front
Offensive battle on the western front initiated by Germany in which they hoped to crush France and take them out of the war, however France was in a very good defensive position.No territory was gained; Battle in WWI that ended in massive casualties and had little direct result. Germans lose
In an attempt to relive the French at Verdun, the British and French launched an offensive on the somme. This was the "Big Push", the offensive for which the eager volunteers of 1914 had long anticipated, and widely hoped to end the war. By November the offensive had ground to a halt.But the battle had convinced the Germans they did not want to face another battle that the Somme.
-was a huge invention as it provided a weapon that could fire hundreds of rounds per minute during WWI
Introduced by the Germans and was used by both sides during the war; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation
Lawrence of Arabia
A British officer that urged Arab princes to rebel against the Ottoman Empire in 1917.
British passenger ship that was torpedoed by a German U-Boat in 1915; 1,200 people died, including 128 Americans
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847-1934)-President of Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I.
This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war, Guided German military operations, decided to make one final military break-gamble- grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate. His gamble failed.
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points- wanted to ensure that Germany would never again threaten France
Defense of the Realm Act (DORA)
An act passed during WWI in Great Britain that allowed the government and police to censor the press and arrest dissenters as traitors
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
Everyone was employed, and wages were high but there were few goods to buy, prices went up rapidly because items were scarce
November 11, 1918
Day in which the armistice between Central Powers and Allies was signed- ending WWI
The Free Corp
German regular army and group of antirevolutionary volunteers that crushed the radical socialists/ communists
guidelines in Treaty of Versailles that Germany must follow
This country was created after WWI uniting ethnicities that spoke similar Slavic languages.
League of Nations' Mandates
Acquisitions of fallen broken-up nations by allied powers that was one of the most imperialistic elements of the peace settlement.
1849; Delegates from German states met in Frankfurt to discuss their vision of how a united Germany would be established; Not sanctioned by Wilhelm; Disagreed over whether it should be a republic or monarchy
Theorists who applied Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society, arguing that poorer and weaker segments of society deserved their fate.
Art that applies naturalistic, REALIST styles and contrast with light and dark. Religious AND secular themes. Involved with ABSOLUTISM.
Cult of Domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Greek Revolt of 1821
Greek Revolt against the ottomon empire that was put down violently, European nations intervened and wiped out the Ottomon navy, and the Greeks gained assistance from the Russians, French, and British.
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis, 1st theory about dreams, emphasis on unconscious mind, conflicts between unconscious and conscious caused personality, dreams=safe place to let out unacceptable feelings
A branch of socialism that emphasizes exploitation and class struggle and includes both communism and other approaches. Karl Marx
A belief that national interests as a whole should be more important than what one region wants. Also seen as a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. This led to the creation of a number of European empires which extended around the world. "white mans burden"
Explain four main long term causes of World War I and the immediate cause for war
I- internal dissent/ imperialism
Causes: Archduke Francs Ferdinand assassinated and Austria blamed serbia
Difference between Western Front and Eastern Front
Western: Germany try to invade Paris, France and Brit send troops. Neither Germany nor France could dislodge other from trenches. Both sides stuck in same place for four years
Eastern: More mobility
Womens Role in War
Women take over men jobs "over cap of women" even though male resistance was especially hard in industry. Women wages rose but not = to men. After war, government removed women from jobs. In some countries, helped women for social and political emancipation. Right to vote in Germany and Austria.
Wilson vs Clemenceau approach to Paris Peace Conference and Treat of Versailles
Wilson: open covenants of peace, not secret diplomacy
reduce national armaments to point consistent w domestic safety
self determination of peoples
democracy and international cooperation
Clemenceau: Germ deserves revenge
Want security against future Germ aggression
Demilitarize Germ, pay for war
Effect of the War on birthrate in Europe from 1914-1918
Birth rate went down because no husbands
Failure in Diplomacy set stage for WW2
Failure in diplomacy at Treaty of Versailles set stage for WWII because Germany wanted to resist the treaty because it was designed to weaken Germany and make them pay for the war
Need for government centralization and rationing because the war
Britain - government centralized to get more involved in making munitions at limited profits, take over manufacturing plants that didn't cooperate. Ration food supplies and imposed rent controls.
French - obstacle in organizing total war economy. Military and civil authority argue over who conduct war. Clemenceau established clear civilian control of total war government
New weapons transformed imperialism before the war by helping big nations capture small nations and caused more deaths during the war with stronger weapons
How was the conflict in the Balkans a long-term cause for WWI?
Serbia (+Russia) wanted to make independent Slavic state in Balkans
Austria wanted to do the same
= Serb + Russ and Austria-Hungary tensions
Change in Europe
New countries created because of Treaty of Versailles and Paris Peace Conference: form Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia. , Austria, Hung
Remade political map: German and Russian empire lost considerable land; Austro-Hungarian Empire disappears.
France loose Russia as major ally
Ottoman Empire dismembered
MANDATES: France took control of Lebanon and Syria
Britain gets Iraq and Palestine
Nation officially administers territory on behalf of League of Nations.
United States entry to war and effects on Allied cause
US entry: tried to be neutral but Germany naval sank passenger liner w/ Americans (Lustantania) = Germany suspend submarine warfare BRIEFLY
US enter because Germ return to unrestricted submarine policy
Gave Allied Powers psychological boost
Consequences of Crimean War
Crimean War consequences in Russia: defeated by Britain and France and humiliated, withdrawing from Euro affairs for two decades
On Euro: broke up Concert of Europe. Austria and Russ were enemies now. Austria neutrality = no allies
Developments of the 2nd Industrial Revolution aided European inperialism
Developments in 2nd Industrial Rev that aided Euro imperialism: new developments of ammunition, chemicals, explosives; aided military generals and improved the way wars were fought- stronger nations trumped weaker
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