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48 terms

Digestive System

From the mouth to the anus, accessory organs, perioneum, GI tract organs, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, gallbladder, liver, salivary glands, mesentery
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Ingestion
taking food into the mouth
Secretion
release water, acid, buffers, enzymes into the lumen of the GI tract
Mixing and Propulsion
churning and pushing food through the GI tract
Digestion
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
Absorption
passing of digested products from GI tract to the blood and lymph
Defecation
elimination of feces from the GI tract
Gastrointestinal tract
tube from mouth to anus, lumen is the hole that runs through the tube
Organs of GI tract
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
Accessory organs
salivary glands, tongue, teeth, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
Peritoneum
Double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominopelvic wall and organs
Visceral layer
covers the organs of the GI tract below the diaphragm
Parietal layer
lines the abdominopelvic wall
Peritoneal cavity
space between parietal and visceral layer filled with serous fluid
Retroperitoneal organs
kidneys and pancreas
Mesentery
a membrane that attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
Falciform ligament
a ligament that attaches part of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall
Greater omentum
drapes over the transverse colon and small intestine
Mouth
where mechanical and chemical digestion starts with the help of the cheeks and lips
hard palate
hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
soft palate
smooth muscles of the posterior roof of the mouth where the uvula hangs & helps close off the nasopharynx when swallowing to prevent food from getting in
Fauces
opens to the oropharynx and palatine tonsils
Pharynx (throat)
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx
posterior to nasal cavity, soft palate muscles prevents food from entering nasal cavity
Oropharynx
both food and air pass through
Epiglottis
moves up during swallowing to allow food into the pharynx and moves down to cover the larynx to keep food out of the airway
Laryngopharynx
lowest portion of the pharynx, connects with both the esophagus(food tube) and the larynx (voice box) it is a passageway for food & air
Esophagus
posterior to the trachea (windpipe) runs from the laryngopharynx to the stomach
Stomach
J-shaped, below diaphragm, connected to the esophagus and small intestine, it is a mixing/holding chamber
The stomach
secretes mucous, pepsin, and hydrochloric acid which aids in breaking down food
Regions of the stomach
cardia, fundus, body, pylorus, pyloric sphincter, rugae
Cardia
surrounds the opening of the stomach
Fundus
dome shaped top of stomach
Body
the large central portion of the stomach
Pylorus
the narrow bottom area of the stomach
Pyloric sphincter
seperates the stomach from the first part of the small intestine
Rugae
interior folds of the stomach that allows it to expand
Small intestine
approximately 10 feet long where the majority of digestion and absorption occur
Small intestine
has 3 parts, duodenum less than 1 ft, jejunum 8 ft, ileum 12 ft
ileocecal sphincter
joins the small intestine to the large intestine
Large intestine
approximately 5 feet long absorbs large amounts of water, forms and expulses fecal matter, goes from the cecum where the appendix is attached, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
From the rectum
to the anal canal, to the internal anal sphincter (involuntary), to the external anal sphincter (voluntary) to the anus
3 pairs of salivary glands
secretes saliva into the oral cavity are the parotid (near the ear), submandibular (floor of the mouth), and sublingual (under the tongue)
Tongue
manipulates food during chewing and the lingual frenulum underneath limits posterior movement
Teeth
aids in mechanical digestion
Tooth structure
crown, neck, root, enamel, dentin, gingiva, pulp, cemetum, root canal, alveolar bone, peridontal ligament
Pancreas
located behind the stomach secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine duodenum via the pancreatic duct
Liver
inferior to the diaphragm, aids in emulsification by producing bile that helps break down lipids, has two lobes: larger right lobe-falciform ligament and the smaller left lobe
Gallbladder
hangs from the lower front margin of the liver and stores the bile produced by the liver