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From the mouth to the anus, accessory organs, perioneum, GI tract organs, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, gallbladder, liver, salivary glands, mesentery


taking food into the mouth


release water, acid, buffers, enzymes into the lumen of the GI tract

Mixing and Propulsion

churning and pushing food through the GI tract


mechanical and chemical breakdown of food


passing of digested products from GI tract to the blood and lymph


elimination of feces from the GI tract

Gastrointestinal tract

tube from mouth to anus, lumen is the hole that runs through the tube

Organs of GI tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

Accessory organs

salivary glands, tongue, teeth, pancreas, liver, gallbladder


Double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominopelvic wall and organs

Visceral layer

covers the organs of the GI tract below the diaphragm

Parietal layer

lines the abdominopelvic wall

Peritoneal cavity

space between parietal and visceral layer filled with serous fluid

Retroperitoneal organs

kidneys and pancreas


a membrane that attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall

Falciform ligament

a ligament that attaches part of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

Greater omentum

drapes over the transverse colon and small intestine


where mechanical and chemical digestion starts with the help of the cheeks and lips

hard palate

hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity

soft palate

smooth muscles of the posterior roof of the mouth where the uvula hangs & helps close off the nasopharynx when swallowing to prevent food from getting in


opens to the oropharynx and palatine tonsils

Pharynx (throat)

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx


posterior to nasal cavity, soft palate muscles prevents food from entering nasal cavity


both food and air pass through


moves up during swallowing to allow food into the pharynx and moves down to cover the larynx to keep food out of the airway


lowest portion of the pharynx, connects with both the esophagus(food tube) and the larynx (voice box) it is a passageway for food & air


posterior to the trachea (windpipe) runs from the laryngopharynx to the stomach


J-shaped, below diaphragm, connected to the esophagus and small intestine, it is a mixing/holding chamber

The stomach

secretes mucous, pepsin, and hydrochloric acid which aids in breaking down food

Regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, pylorus, pyloric sphincter, rugae


surrounds the opening of the stomach


dome shaped top of stomach


the large central portion of the stomach


the narrow bottom area of the stomach

Pyloric sphincter

seperates the stomach from the first part of the small intestine


interior folds of the stomach that allows it to expand

Small intestine

approximately 10 feet long where the majority of digestion and absorption occur

Small intestine

has 3 parts, duodenum less than 1 ft, jejunum 8 ft, ileum 12 ft

ileocecal sphincter

joins the small intestine to the large intestine

Large intestine

approximately 5 feet long absorbs large amounts of water, forms and expulses fecal matter, goes from the cecum where the appendix is attached, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

From the rectum

to the anal canal, to the internal anal sphincter (involuntary), to the external anal sphincter (voluntary) to the anus

3 pairs of salivary glands

secretes saliva into the oral cavity are the parotid (near the ear), submandibular (floor of the mouth), and sublingual (under the tongue)


manipulates food during chewing and the lingual frenulum underneath limits posterior movement


aids in mechanical digestion

Tooth structure

crown, neck, root, enamel, dentin, gingiva, pulp, cemetum, root canal, alveolar bone, peridontal ligament


located behind the stomach secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine duodenum via the pancreatic duct


inferior to the diaphragm, aids in emulsification by producing bile that helps break down lipids, has two lobes: larger right lobe-falciform ligament and the smaller left lobe


hangs from the lower front margin of the liver and stores the bile produced by the liver

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