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45 terms

Immune Deficiencies

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immunoglobulins involved in immunity are
IgG, IgA, IgM
IgE
associated with allergy and parasitic infections
CD4 cells
regulate the normal immune respone, these are destroyed in HIV
AIDS
infection may result in dementia, wasting syndrome and blood abnormalities
AIDS transmission
transfusion, transplants, contaminated needles, semen, vaginal fluids, across the placenta from an infected mother to fetus or infant via cervical blood or breast milk
Dx AIDS
test 3 months after exposure (infected person can test negative for 35 months), ELISA, western blot test, CD4 counts used to determine progress of the disease, antibody tests are unreliable for an infant up to 18 months,
Zidovudine (ZDV)
antiretroviral drug given to infants born to HIV postive mothers that temporarily inactivates the HIV virus
Anaphylaxis
give epinephrine, give fluids, phenobarbitol to prevent seizures; valium to stop seizures (seizure drugs dont mix with anything including IV fluid, saline only)
Roseola Infantum (Viral subitum)
acute benign viral infection affecting 6 months to 3 y/o. ("before the roses bloom there has to be some heat")
S/S Roseola Infantum
fever followed by abrupt drop in temp, then a rash (starting in trunk)
Tx Roseola Infantum
supportive and antipyretics
Varicella (Chicken pox)
acute and highly contagious infection, can occur at any age but is more common in children 2-8 y/o. transmitted by direct contact, communicable 1 day before skin eruptions to 6 days after vesicle forms
S/S Varicella
rash, fever, malaise and anorexia
Tx Varicella
strict isolation until scabs and vesicles disappear, local or systemic antipruritics, cool bicarbonate or soda bath's, calamine lotion, antihistamine, no ASA due to Reye's syndrome(reaction with aspirin and the virus, causes fatty degeneration of the liver), Varicessa-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) for immunosuppressed
Rubella (German Measles)
acute mildly contagious viral disease, communicable for 7 days before the rash appears and 5 days after rash appears, problem during first trimester in pregnancy
S/S Rubella
distinctive 3-day rash (starts on face and rapidly spreads to trunk) and lymphadenopathy, headache malaise, anorexia, low-grade fever, lymph node enlargment
Tx Rubella
ASA for fever and joint pain
Rubeola (Measles)
acute highly contagious paramyxovirus infection. considered most serious of all childhood diseases. transmitted by direct contact or resp dropletts
S/S Rubeola
Koplik spots (blue and grey spots surrounded by a red halo; appear in mouth opposite of the molars) fever, photophobia, malaise, anorexia, conjunctivities, rhinitis, hoarseness and hacking cough
Tx Rubeola
relief of symptoms, bed rest, humidifier and warm environment and antipyretics. text book suggests ASA, clinically tylenol is better
Small Pox
highly contagious, vaccinations, strict isolation and antimicrobial therapy
Streptococcal Infections
small gram positive bacteria, 21 different species
Dx of Strep
rapid strep tests, if bacterial Penicillin is drug of choice, chronic pharangytis is common in adults who work or live in dusty or smoky surroundings
Rheumatic fever
inflammatory lesions of connective and endothelial tissue, treated with penicillin
Bacteremia
caused by strep or staph, can cause death within 12 hours if not treated
Mumps
"infectious parotitis" found in saliva, can get into male testes and cause sterility
S/S mumps
myalgia, anorexia, headache, low grade fever followed by and earache aggravated by chewing
Tx Mumps
analgesics for pain, antipyretics, bedrest, hydration
Mononucleosis (Mono)
caused by Epstein Barr virus, member of the herpes group, spread through oral route or blood transfusion
S/S Mononucleosis
fever, sore throat and cervical lymphadenopathy as well as hepatic dysfunction and splenomegaly
Tx mononucleosis
x
Cytomegalovirus
member of herpes family, spread by contact with body secretion, mucus membranes and sexual activity, CMV during pregnancy is dangerous, virus is shed in urine and saliva
Tx Cytomegalovirus
control sore throat and fever, if presents with pneumonia or retinitis antivirals may be used, immunocompromised receive acyclovir or gancyclovir, if spenomegaly is present avoid sports and heavy lifting
Rabies
acute infection from an animal bite
S/S Rabies
radiating pain, pruritis, tingling at bite site, CNS, nervousness, anxiety, irritablity photophobia, LOC
Tx Rabies
x
West Nile Virus
transmitted normally between birds and mosquitoes
S/S
mild fever, HA, myalgia/arthraligia, sore throat and GI complaints
Lyme Disease
caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by ticks
S/S lyme disease
flu like symptoms, severe arthritis like pain, stiff neck, fatigue, headache, heart block in 5-10% of pt, affects skin integrity
Scarlet Fever
caused by groub A hemolytic Strep
Impetigo
caused by Beta-hemolytic strep
S/S impetigo
honey colored lesions bubble and crust
Pinworms
love crowded conditions such as daycares, eggs are ingested or inhaled, hatch in the upper intestine and mature on the way down, females migrate out of anus and lay eggs
Tx Pinworms
Vermox (drug of choice, not recommended for children under 2), antiminth and povan, drug stains stool and vomit bright red