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transfusion, transplants, contaminated needles, semen, vaginal fluids, across the placenta from an infected mother to fetus or infant via cervical blood or breast milk
test 3 months after exposure (infected person can test negative for 35 months), ELISA, western blot test, CD4 counts used to determine progress of the disease, antibody tests are unreliable for an infant up to 18 months,
antiretroviral drug given to infants born to HIV postive mothers that temporarily inactivates the HIV virus
give epinephrine, give fluids, phenobarbitol to prevent seizures; valium to stop seizures (seizure drugs dont mix with anything including IV fluid, saline only)
Roseola Infantum (Viral subitum)
acute benign viral infection affecting 6 months to 3 y/o. ("before the roses bloom there has to be some heat")
Varicella (Chicken pox)
acute and highly contagious infection, can occur at any age but is more common in children 2-8 y/o. transmitted by direct contact, communicable 1 day before skin eruptions to 6 days after vesicle forms
strict isolation until scabs and vesicles disappear, local or systemic antipruritics, cool bicarbonate or soda bath's, calamine lotion, antihistamine, no ASA due to Reye's syndrome(reaction with aspirin and the virus, causes fatty degeneration of the liver), Varicessa-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) for immunosuppressed
Rubella (German Measles)
acute mildly contagious viral disease, communicable for 7 days before the rash appears and 5 days after rash appears, problem during first trimester in pregnancy
distinctive 3-day rash (starts on face and rapidly spreads to trunk) and lymphadenopathy, headache malaise, anorexia, low-grade fever, lymph node enlargment
acute highly contagious paramyxovirus infection. considered most serious of all childhood diseases. transmitted by direct contact or resp dropletts
Koplik spots (blue and grey spots surrounded by a red halo; appear in mouth opposite of the molars) fever, photophobia, malaise, anorexia, conjunctivities, rhinitis, hoarseness and hacking cough
relief of symptoms, bed rest, humidifier and warm environment and antipyretics. text book suggests ASA, clinically tylenol is better
Dx of Strep
rapid strep tests, if bacterial Penicillin is drug of choice, chronic pharangytis is common in adults who work or live in dusty or smoky surroundings
myalgia, anorexia, headache, low grade fever followed by and earache aggravated by chewing
caused by Epstein Barr virus, member of the herpes group, spread through oral route or blood transfusion
fever, sore throat and cervical lymphadenopathy as well as hepatic dysfunction and splenomegaly
member of herpes family, spread by contact with body secretion, mucus membranes and sexual activity, CMV during pregnancy is dangerous, virus is shed in urine and saliva
control sore throat and fever, if presents with pneumonia or retinitis antivirals may be used, immunocompromised receive acyclovir or gancyclovir, if spenomegaly is present avoid sports and heavy lifting
radiating pain, pruritis, tingling at bite site, CNS, nervousness, anxiety, irritablity photophobia, LOC
S/S lyme disease
flu like symptoms, severe arthritis like pain, stiff neck, fatigue, headache, heart block in 5-10% of pt, affects skin integrity
love crowded conditions such as daycares, eggs are ingested or inhaled, hatch in the upper intestine and mature on the way down, females migrate out of anus and lay eggs
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