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immunoglobulins involved in immunity are

IgG, IgA, IgM


associated with allergy and parasitic infections

CD4 cells

regulate the normal immune respone, these are destroyed in HIV


infection may result in dementia, wasting syndrome and blood abnormalities

AIDS transmission

transfusion, transplants, contaminated needles, semen, vaginal fluids, across the placenta from an infected mother to fetus or infant via cervical blood or breast milk


test 3 months after exposure (infected person can test negative for 35 months), ELISA, western blot test, CD4 counts used to determine progress of the disease, antibody tests are unreliable for an infant up to 18 months,

Zidovudine (ZDV)

antiretroviral drug given to infants born to HIV postive mothers that temporarily inactivates the HIV virus


give epinephrine, give fluids, phenobarbitol to prevent seizures; valium to stop seizures (seizure drugs dont mix with anything including IV fluid, saline only)

Roseola Infantum (Viral subitum)

acute benign viral infection affecting 6 months to 3 y/o. ("before the roses bloom there has to be some heat")

S/S Roseola Infantum

fever followed by abrupt drop in temp, then a rash (starting in trunk)

Tx Roseola Infantum

supportive and antipyretics

Varicella (Chicken pox)

acute and highly contagious infection, can occur at any age but is more common in children 2-8 y/o. transmitted by direct contact, communicable 1 day before skin eruptions to 6 days after vesicle forms

S/S Varicella

rash, fever, malaise and anorexia

Tx Varicella

strict isolation until scabs and vesicles disappear, local or systemic antipruritics, cool bicarbonate or soda bath's, calamine lotion, antihistamine, no ASA due to Reye's syndrome(reaction with aspirin and the virus, causes fatty degeneration of the liver), Varicessa-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) for immunosuppressed

Rubella (German Measles)

acute mildly contagious viral disease, communicable for 7 days before the rash appears and 5 days after rash appears, problem during first trimester in pregnancy

S/S Rubella

distinctive 3-day rash (starts on face and rapidly spreads to trunk) and lymphadenopathy, headache malaise, anorexia, low-grade fever, lymph node enlargment

Tx Rubella

ASA for fever and joint pain

Rubeola (Measles)

acute highly contagious paramyxovirus infection. considered most serious of all childhood diseases. transmitted by direct contact or resp dropletts

S/S Rubeola

Koplik spots (blue and grey spots surrounded by a red halo; appear in mouth opposite of the molars) fever, photophobia, malaise, anorexia, conjunctivities, rhinitis, hoarseness and hacking cough

Tx Rubeola

relief of symptoms, bed rest, humidifier and warm environment and antipyretics. text book suggests ASA, clinically tylenol is better

Small Pox

highly contagious, vaccinations, strict isolation and antimicrobial therapy

Streptococcal Infections

small gram positive bacteria, 21 different species

Dx of Strep

rapid strep tests, if bacterial Penicillin is drug of choice, chronic pharangytis is common in adults who work or live in dusty or smoky surroundings

Rheumatic fever

inflammatory lesions of connective and endothelial tissue, treated with penicillin


caused by strep or staph, can cause death within 12 hours if not treated


"infectious parotitis" found in saliva, can get into male testes and cause sterility

S/S mumps

myalgia, anorexia, headache, low grade fever followed by and earache aggravated by chewing

Tx Mumps

analgesics for pain, antipyretics, bedrest, hydration

Mononucleosis (Mono)

caused by Epstein Barr virus, member of the herpes group, spread through oral route or blood transfusion

S/S Mononucleosis

fever, sore throat and cervical lymphadenopathy as well as hepatic dysfunction and splenomegaly

Tx mononucleosis



member of herpes family, spread by contact with body secretion, mucus membranes and sexual activity, CMV during pregnancy is dangerous, virus is shed in urine and saliva

Tx Cytomegalovirus

control sore throat and fever, if presents with pneumonia or retinitis antivirals may be used, immunocompromised receive acyclovir or gancyclovir, if spenomegaly is present avoid sports and heavy lifting


acute infection from an animal bite

S/S Rabies

radiating pain, pruritis, tingling at bite site, CNS, nervousness, anxiety, irritablity photophobia, LOC

Tx Rabies


West Nile Virus

transmitted normally between birds and mosquitoes


mild fever, HA, myalgia/arthraligia, sore throat and GI complaints

Lyme Disease

caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by ticks

S/S lyme disease

flu like symptoms, severe arthritis like pain, stiff neck, fatigue, headache, heart block in 5-10% of pt, affects skin integrity

Scarlet Fever

caused by groub A hemolytic Strep


caused by Beta-hemolytic strep

S/S impetigo

honey colored lesions bubble and crust


love crowded conditions such as daycares, eggs are ingested or inhaled, hatch in the upper intestine and mature on the way down, females migrate out of anus and lay eggs

Tx Pinworms

Vermox (drug of choice, not recommended for children under 2), antiminth and povan, drug stains stool and vomit bright red

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