106 terms

2015 Gateway Review

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Neolithic Revolution
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
Five Characteristics of "Civilization"
Record Keeping, Complex Institutions, Specialized Labor, Advanced Cities, Advanced Technology
Monotheism
Belief in one God
Hebrews
A smaller early civilization whose development of a monotheistic faith that provided the foundation of modern Judaism, Christianity, and Islam assured them a significant place in world history
Zoroastrians
Founded by Zoroaster, this Persian religion urged people to be truthful, to help each other, and to practice hospitality. Those who did would be rewarded in an afterlife after a 'judgment day.' The Zoroastrians had a tremendous influence on the theology of Judaism. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in the eastern part of ancient Greater Iran (Persia)
Cuneiform
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
Emperor Asoka
(304-232 BCE) Considered to have ruled over India during its "Golden Age." He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent under on and converted into Buddhism, adopting it as the state religion, along with a strong belief in non-violence. Missionaries were sent abroad during his reign to spread Buddhism throughout Asia.
Confucius
(551-479 BCE) he was an influential teacher, thinker, and leader in China who developed a set of principles for ethical living. He believed that coercive laws and punishment would not be needed to maintain order in society if men following his ethics ruled. He taught his philosophy to anyone who was intelligent and willing to work, which allowed men to gain entry into the ruling through education. The Analects, a collection of his moral and social teachings, including the concept of the Five Relationships. Also known as Kong Fu Zi.
Hinduism
A general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. Hinduism has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices. It spread along the trade routes to Southeast Asia. Hinduism that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system.
It it is often characterized by a belief in reincarnation, many gods or a supreme being who takes various forms.
Buddhism
A major religion that emerged in the 500s BC. Buddhism urged people to seek enlightenment through meditation and its founder was Siddhartha Gautama. He taught through the followings of the Eightfold Path (which he describes as right views, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right contemplation). Buddha's teachings that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire and suffering ceases when desire ceases. Enlightenment obtained through right conduct, wisdom, and meditation releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth (reincarnation).
Chinese Examination System
A political feature of Chinese empires, starting with the Han and lasting until the early 1900s, in which young Chinese scholars would take rigorous, state-sponsored exams in order to earn government positions as bureaucrats. This system allowed for some lower-class citizens to rise to political prominence, but this was rare.
Bureaucrat
A career government employee.
Peasant
A poor farmer of low social status who owns or rents a small piece of land for cultivation (chiefly in historical use or with reference to subsistence farming in poorer countries).
Five Social Relationships
Confucian principal which encourages people to accept their place in society. None of the relationships are equal relationships except for friend to friend. Overall, the superior is to care for the younger and teach them while the younger is to be loyal and respectful. Society is harmonious when people fulfill these roles and accept their place within society. These relatiosnhips are: father to son; elder brother to younger brother; friend to friend; husband to wife; ruler to subject.
Mandate of Heaven
A political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right/responsibility to rule from a divine source. This power may be lost over time and then gained by others, who then are to rule.
Patriarchy
A form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line. In these societies, men are the primary authority figure central to social organization. These cultures often characterized as being male-dominated, male-identified, and male-centered.
Chinese merchants
Merchant families were based in the cities, and some became very wealthy. However, ancient Chinese society viewed merchants with suspicion, accusing them of greedily driving prices up through speculation and being parasites who lived off the work of others. They traded silk fabric, tea, steel, paper, and porcelain. They used the Silk Road to travel.
Maurya Empire
Indian empire founded by Chandragupta, beginning with his kingdom in northeastern India and spreading to most of northern and central India.
Chandragupta Maurya
(322 - 298 BCE)Founder of the Mauryan Empire, India's first empire. He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander the Great invaded western India.
Alexander the Great
(356 BCE-323 BCE) the son of Macedonian King Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle. He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
Hellenism
Blending of Egyptian, Persian and Greek culture; emphasis on philosophy and sciences.
Polis
The term used to refer to city-states in ancient Greece
City-state
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.
Empire
A group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government.
Socrates
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes. His teachings center around questioning, asking students pointed questions to make them use logic and reason to construct their ideas. His popularity as a teacher and in questioning the status quo, ended in his trial and conviction of "corrupting youth" in Athens. He was then forced to commit suicide. Famous sayings include, "the only thing I know is that I know nothing"
Plato
(430-347 BCE) A student of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection. He founded the Academy in Athens, the first school for higher education in the world.
His works are the only record we have of Socrates' teachings. he was also the author of formative philosophical works on ethics and politics, including "The Republic."
Aristotle
(384-322 BCE) Greek philosopher and scientist. A student of Plato and tutor to Alexander the Great, he founded a school (the Lyceum) outside Athens. He is one of the most influential thinkers in the history of Western thought. His surviving works cover a vast range of subjects, including logic, ethics, metaphysics, politics, natural science, and physics.
Julius Caesar
(100-44 BCE) Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul (France) with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC. Assassinated by Brutus and others in 44 BCE because he was too powerful. His death marked the beginning of 10 years of civil war. His rule is key to the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire.
Augustus Caesar
(63 B.C.E.—14 CE) Also called Octavian, he was the grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar. The name Augustus given to Octavian following his defeat with Mark Antony & Cleopatra. After "avenging" Caesar's murder, he restored order to Rome he assumed the title Augustus and was the first emperor of Rome, beginning the era of the Roman Empire, also ending the rule of the Roman Senate and the era of the "Roman Republic." His reign begins the Pax Romana.
Pax Romana
(27 BCE to 180CE) Often called the Roman Peace or the Golden Age, a 200 year of peace and prosperity, that began with the reign of Rome's first emperor, Augustus.
Polytheism
Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Greek and Roman Polytheism
Term refers to the many religious traditions practiced within the Roman Empire and eventually combined into something resembling a complex whole. It originated largely in the pre-existing mythology of ancient Greece, which heavily influenced the Romans and their own religious practices. Both religions are characterized by belief in numerous gods, often referred to as the "Pantheon."
Roman Technology
The Romans were expert military and civil engineers. Among their accomplishments were bridge-building, ballistic weapons, elevated and underground aqueducts, the use of arches and domes, and the invention of concrete. Roman aqueducts provided water throughout the empire, cement enabled the Romans for their architectural achievements, roads allowed for faster transportation, and several other innovations allowed Rome for such prosperity.
Chinese technology
Developed numerous improvements in agriculture, invented paper, acupuncture, gunpowder, collar harness, plow and wheelbarrow. The Great Canal was built for trade, coined money was made and used, cast iron was used for weapons and tools. The Chinese also developed gun powder, wood block printing, moveable type printing and the magnetic compass.
Christianity
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on Judaism and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior. The Christian religion, includes the Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox churches. Christians were often persecuted by the Roman government for failure to comply with the laws requiring worship of various gods. Christianity was legalized by Emperor Constantine in 380, by the Edict of Milan.
Emperor Justinian
Emperor of the Byzantine empire from 527-565. He wanted to restore the original Roman empire and he tried to do so by recapturing territories in northern Africa and all land that was lost. Reformed Roman law by creating a code and had harsh policies/laws that drove the Nika Revolt. He built the Hippodrome and built the Hagia Sofia.
Empress Theodora
Empress of the Byzantine Empire, wife to Emperor Justinian. She restored icons to EASTERN churches, influential in Justinian's famous law code, Justinian's very powerful wife and is widely known as the most powerful woman in the history of the Byzantine Empire
Justinian Code
The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534. A single, uniform code that consisted of four works: (1) The Code (useful laws), (2) The Digest (Opinions of Rome's greatest legal thinkers about the laws), (3) The Institutes (A textbook for law-school students), (4) and The Novellae (Presented legislation). It decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life (Example: Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women's rights, and criminal justice).
Roman Class Structure
Patricians (Rome's ruling class made of wealthy landowners) who had most of the power in Rome and Plebeians, who were majority of regular Roman citizens.
The Great Schism
1054 CE.
Official break between Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox during the of the West. Disagreements about icons, priests being able to marry, power (who was in charge) and doctrine.
Mongol Empire
1206-1368 CE. An empire founded in the 12th century by Genghis Khan, which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 13th century, encompassing the larger part of Asia and extending westward to the Dnieper River in eastern Europe.
The Silk Road
One of the first trade routes in the world,an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay (China).
Genghis Khan
(1167?-1227) One of the Mongol's greatest leaders and founder of the Mongol Empire. Born Temujin, he took the title of Genghis Khan (universal ruler) when he united the Mongol clans; over 40 years, he conquered the largest land-based empire in all of history.
Tsar/Czar Ivan III
The title "Tsar" was derived the from Latin, Caesar. This Russian title for a monarch was first used to reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III. He is known for defeating the Mongol advance on Moscow in 1480 and established himself as the first ruler of the new Russian state after ending a long period Mongol rule of Russia. He is sometimes referred to as "Ivan the Terrible."
Marco Polo
(1254-1324 CE) A Venetian (Italian) merchant and traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324).
Kublai Khan
(1215-1294 CE) Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, the first dynasty where China was ruled by non-Chinese rulers.
Ottoman Empire
(1299-1923) Turkish empire founded by Osman I that controlled much of the Islamic world at its peak. The empire was incredibly diverse, ruling over Christian, Muslim and Jewish peoples. At its peak, the Ottoman Empire stretched from eastern Europe and the Balkan peninsula to North Africa and the Middle East. It was ruled from the city of Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) after defeating the Byzantine Empire. They are one of the first empires to use gun powder technology in their military.
Constantinople
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul. Its name was changed in 1453, when the Byzantine Empire was defeated.
dynasty
A line of rulers who belong to the same family
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims. Their beliefs are summarized as the "Five Pillars." Islam is directly influenced by Judaism and Christianity, as Allah, is the same god that is worshiped by all three religions.
Five Pillars
The five basic beliefs and duties of a Muslim. They are: 1) Allah is only God 2) prayer to Mecca 3) Fasting during Ramadan 4) Zakat (charity) 5) The Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Sunni
83% of Muslims. Because of no direct male heir to Muhammad, Sunnis follow leadership of Muhammad's appointed successors, known as caliphs.
Shia/Shiite
A branch of Islam that only accept Muhammad's son in law, Ali as leader, as leaders be chosen based on heredity.
Ibn Sina
slamic physician, wrote a book called Canon on Medicine, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years.
Ibn Battuta
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
Trans-Saharan Trade
The North-South trade system in Northern Africa, across the Sahara desert that facilitated by the arrival of camels and bringing Islam into West Africa, creating a large market for African gold linking Africa to Europe and Asia, introducing African slavery to the Middle East, and urbanizing western Africa. People most often traveled here to trade salt and gold.
Indian Ocean Trade
Connected to Europe, Africa, and China. Earth's richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.
Specialized Labor
a labor system each person is responsible for a specific, specialized set of tasks at which that person is to become proficient (example: janitor), the workers work is matched on the basis of merit.
Machiavelli
(1469-1527 CE.) A Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, who wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519 CE)Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Michaelangelo
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Sundiata
"The lion prince". Founded the Mali empire in W. Africa. Oral Tradition: Son of a regional African ruler. Deformed left leg left him crippled. When his father died, his kingdom was overrun and enemies killed the royal family except for Sundiata. He eventually grew stronger and began hunting. Enemies forced him into exile, where he became a strong warrior. He eventually returned home and claimed the throne His calvary (main strength of his army) slashed through his enemies and he effortlessly established rule throughout the Niger River valley. He was a Muslim and welcomed Muslim merchants to his capital of Niani. Empire included Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, and Sierra Leone.
Mansa Musa
(1312 - 1337 CE) the tenth king of the Malian Empire in Africa; at the time, he was one of the wealthiest rulers in the world; he built cities and a University in his Empire; a devout Muslim, he made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, making him well-known across northern Africa and the Middle East
Charlemagne
(768-814 CE) Also called "Charles the Great." The leader of the Frankish people, ruled the Kingdom of the Franks (France). He was also the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival, increasing literacy and constructing one of the only unified, functional kingdoms in medieval Europe.
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Petrarch
(1304-1374 CE) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization. Considered the pioneer of humanism.
Dante
(1265-1321 CE ) Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy, that later influenced the modern Italian language.
Pope Gregory VII
(1020-1085 CE. ) A powerful medieval pope who fought with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over the power to choose church officials, he placed Henry under interdiction until he agreed to stop choosing church officials.
King Henry IV
(1050-1106 CE.) Germany; conflict with Pope Gregory VII (lay investiture, or the practice of non-church officials appointing church officials). Henry IV believed rulers had right to appoint high-ranking clerics, especially bishops, as their vassals.
Crusades
(1096-1270 CE.)A series of religious wars undertaken by European Christians, led by Pope Urban II to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule and assist the Byzantine empire. The First Crusade was success, but the rest a were a total failure. The Crusades weakened the Byzantines and opened up trade between Europe and the east.
Martin Luther
(1483-1546 CE.) a German monk who, in 1517, took a public stand against the sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg; he believed that people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them; his actions began the Reformation.
John Calvin
(1509-1564 CE) French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings, published in "Institutes of the Christian Religion." Calvinists believe that faith will save you, not good deeds, the absolute sovereignty of God, in predestination, kept baptism and made Geneva a Protestant city.
Council of Trent
(1545-1563 CE.) Called by Pope Paul III, it was a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation, an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trent in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation.
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
English Reformation
(1535 CE) Began because of a political dispute between the king and the pope. The pope refused to grant a divorce between King Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. In response to this, the King broke England's ties with the Catholic Church and established himself as the head of Christian faith. However, after the king died, his two daughters reestablished England as a Catholic nation.
Elizabeth I
(1533-1603 CE) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. As Queen of England, she reestablished the Anglican Church after her sister, Queen Mary I had tried to rid England of all Protestants during her reign.
Johann Gutenberg
(1440 CE) A German goldsmith and printer who is credited with being the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and the global inventor of the mechanical printing press. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible), has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.
Zheng He
(1371-1433 CE.) An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa to explore and reaffirm China's importance after the Yuan dynasty.
Vasco DaGama
(1460-1524 CE.) Portuguese explorer discovered an all-water route from Europe to India by sailing around the southern tip of Africa in 1497.
Christopher Columbus
(1492 CE.)An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480-1521 CE.) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
James Cook
(1728-1779CE) British sea captain whose three voyages to the Pacific Ocean greatly expanded European knowledge of the region. Captain Cook, regarded as a great national hero by British public, was killed in altercation with Hawaiian islanders in 1779.
Samuel de Champlain
A leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
Astrolabe
An instrument for taking the altitude of the sun or stars and for the solution of other problems in astronomy and navigation. An example of improved technology that made it possible for Europeans to explore across the world by ocean.
Compass
A originally intended to use as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty and later adopted for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese during the 11th century.[The use of a compass is recorded in Western Europe and in Persia around the early 13th century. An example of improved technology that made it possible for Europeans to explore across the world by ocean.
Caravel
A type of small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. The lateen sails gave her speed and the capacity for sailing to windward (beating). Caravels were used by the Portuguese for the oceanic exploration voyages during the 15th and 16th centuries in the age of discovery. An example of improved technology that made it possible for Europeans to explore across the world by ocean.
Lateen Sail
Triangular sail developed by Arab and Indian merchants and adopted by Europeans.
Before, it was difficult to navigate around Africa and the Indian Ocean because of currents. This type of sail allowed them to move in zigzag motion, by changing the position of the sails relative to the wind. An example of improved technology that made it possible for Europeans to explore across the world by ocean.
Tokugawa
(1603-1867 CE) Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences. This shogunate was started by Tokugawa Ieyasu, who completed the process of unifying Japan.
Qing
(1644-1911 CE) The last imperial dynasty of China which was overthrown by revolutionaries; was ruled by the Manchu people: began to isolate themselves from Western culture.
Shogun
.A hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan. Because of the military power concentrated in his hands and the consequent weakness of the nominal head of state (the mikado or emperor), the shogun was generally the real ruler of the country until feudalism was abolished in 1867
Nobunaga
(1534-1582 CE) A Japanese daimyo who later became shogun; first to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikaga shoguns; unified much of central Honshu under his command, beginning the process of unifying Japan under one government.
Suleiman / Suleyman
(r. 1520-1566 CE)The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire ; also known as 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean, while also being tolerant of people's religious beliefs and practices.
sultan
Title used by Ottoman emperors, meaning "overlord" "one with power"
Shah
Title used by the rulers of the Safavid empire, comes from a Persian term. It is sometimes also used by Mughal rulers as well.
Safavid
(1502-1722 CE) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite or Shi'a state.
Empire Based in Persia (Iran). They are stronger culturally than military, was chief threat (greatest rival) to Ottomans, who were the first to adopt gunpowder technology. They later also adopted gunpowder technology and modernized their military after being defeated in a battle by the Ottomans.
Shah Abbas I
(r. 1587-1629 CE). The most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings. He is famous for opening trade relations with the English and Dutch East India commercial companies, along with opening settlement to European Christians and promoting government officials based upon merit.
Mughal
(1526-1857) A Muslim state exercising dominion over most of India. Their army utilized gunpowder technology and
1526-1858 CE. It is the first time that almost the entire subcontinent is unified and ruled by a centralized government. The early empire established a policy of religious tolerance where Hindus and Muslims could openly practice. Their decline began aropund 1700 when the ruling class, (who were mostly Muslim) began to persecute Hindus. They also established trade relations with Europeans (namely British and Portuguese).
Babur
(r. 1526-1530 CE) founder of the Mughal dynasty, in 1494 inherited kingdom at 11 years old, led military-expanded his kingdom to include much of present day Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Akbar
(r. 1556-1605 CE. )Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India, who was the grandson of Babur, who established the Mughal empire. He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus, founded "the Divine Faith" as a way to try and create religious tolerance in India.
Copernicus
(1473-1543 CE.) A Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that argued that the sun was the center of the universe, rather than the earth, which was commonly believed at the time. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
Scientific Revolution
(1543-1687 CE.) A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Galileo
(1564-1642 CE.) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism (the idea that the sun is the center of the universe) and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work conflicted with current teachings of the Catholic Churuch, he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
Kepler
(1571-1630) Astronomer who believed in Copernican view that the sun was the center of our universe. His work provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and suggested that the planets orbits were ellipses.
Newton
(1642-1727 CE.) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics. Published Principia Mathematica and discovered the law of universal gravitation.
Absolutism/Absolute Monarchy
(1650-1750 CE.) a form of government, usually hereditary monarchy, in which the ruler has no legal limits on his or her power.
Louis XIV (of France)
(r. 1643-1715 CE.) Often called the "Sun King," he believed in divine right, ruling as an absolute monarch, the longest in European history. He also built the Palace of Versailles