Create an account
early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment
psychological perspective concerned with behavioral reactions to stimuli; learning as a result of experience
psychological perspective concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives, and defenses influence behavior
psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one's potential
psychological perspective concerned with physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes
psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; think/reason; and use language
psychological perspective concerned with how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival and spread of our ancestors's genes. look at universal behaviors shared by all people
psychological perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior
engineering psychologists and human factors psychologists
people who do research on how people function best with machines
concentrate on biological, psychological and social factors involved in health and illness
aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace
repetition of the methods used in a previous experiment to see whether the same methods will yield the same results
the behavior or mental process that is measured in an experiment or quasi-experiment (effect)
choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen
the comparison group; the subgroup of the sample that is similar to the experimental group in every way except for the presence of the independent variable
division of the sample into groups so that every individual has an euql chance of being put in any group or condition
factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable
a description of the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable
a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
clues participants discover about the purpose of the study that suggest how they should respond
research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group
research design in which neither participants nor observers know which group is controlled or experimented
a physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experiment group but contains no active ingredient
a response to the belief that the independent variable will have an effect, rather than the actual effect of the independent variable. considered a confounding variable
a field that involves the analysis of numerical information about representative sample of populations
bell-shaped curve that represents data about how lots of human characteristics are dispersed in the population
statistical significance (p)
the condition that exists when the probably that the observed findings are due to chance is less than 1/20
precise destructions of brain tissue. enables more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications.
computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT)
shows structure and/or the extent of a lesion by creating a computerized image using x-rays passed through the brain
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
creates a more detailed computerized image by using a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves that cause emission of signals that depend up on the density of tissue.
an amplified tracing of brain activity produced when electrodes positioned over the scalp transmit signals about the brain's electrical activity to a machine
positron emission tomography (PET)
shows brain activity when radioactively tagged glucose rushes to active neurons and emits positrons
shows brain activity at a higher resolution that the PET scan when changes in oxygen concentration near active neurons alter magnetic qualities
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
portion of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. includes all of the sensory and motor neurons, and subdivisions called the somatic and autonomic systems.
autonomic nervous system
subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves and innervate smooth and heart muscles.
sympathetic nervous system
subdivision of the ANS whose stimulation results in responses that helps your body deal with stressful events
parasympathetic nervous system
subdivision of ANS whose stimulation calms your body following sympathetic stimulation by restoring normal body processes
somatic nervous system
subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves that innervate skeletal (voluntary) muscle
old mammalian brain (part of the evolutionary model of the brain)
limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus
midbrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)
region with parts involved in eye reflexes and movements
forebrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)
limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex
includes portion of the reticular activating system or reticular formation critical for arousal and wakefulness; sends information to and from the medulla, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex
relays visual, auditory, taste, and somatosensory information to/from appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex
controls feeding behavior, drinking behavior, body temperature, sexual behavior, threshold for rage behavior, action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system, and secretions of hormones of the pituitary
center for higher order processes such as thinking, planning, judgement; receives and processes sensory information and directs movement
areas of the cerebral cortext that do not have specific sensory or motor functions, but are involved in higher mental functions such as thinking, planning, and communicating
front strip is somatosensory cortex that processes sensory information including touch, temperature, and pain from body parts; association areas perceive objects
interpret and control emotional behaviors, make decisions, carry out plants; motor cortex strip just in front of somatosensory cortex initiates movements and integrates activities of skeletal muscles; produces speech (Broca's area)
primary area for hearing, understanding language, understanding music/tonality, and processing smell
located in temporal lobes. controls understanding of language and making meaningful languages
supportive cells of the nervous system that guide the growth of developing neurons. They help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of neurons. Also forma an insulating sheath around neurons that speeds conduction.
the basic unit of structure and function of your nervous system. receive, process, and transmit information.
also called the cyton or soma.part of the neuron that contains cytoplasm and the nucleus, which directs synthesis of such substances as neurotransmitters
a long, single conduction fiber extending from the cell body of a neuron that transmits an action potential that branches and end sin tips called terminal buttons
a fatty covering of the axon made my glial cells, which speeds up conduction of the action potential
tips at the end of axons that secrete neurotransmitters when stimulated by the action potential
chemical messengers released by the terminal buttons of the presynaptic neuron into the synapse
a neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart muscles, is involved in memory and also transmits messages between the brain and spinal cord. lack of this is associated with alzheimer's disease.
neurotransmitter that stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize hormones and affects alertness, attention, and movement. lack associated w/ parkinsons, access associated w/ schizophrenia
neurotransmitter that stimulates cells throughout the brain, but especially in the hypothalamus. associated with memory formation and information processing
neurotransmitter associate with arousal, sleep, appetite, moods, and emotions. lack is associated with depression
a neurotransmitter similar to the opiate morphine that relieves pain and may induce feelings of pleasure
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
a neurotransmitter that inhibits firing of postsynapitic neurons. Huntington's disease and seizures are associated with malfunctions of these systems
firing of a neuron. a net flow of sodium ions into the cell that causes a rapid change in potential across the membrane when stimulation reaches a threshold
that law that the neurons either generates an action potential when the stimulated reaches a threshold or doesn't fire when stimulation is below threshold. the strength of the action potential is constant whenever it occurs
rapid conduction of impulses when the axon is myelinated since depolarizations jump from node to node
region of communication between the transmitting presynaptic neuron and receiving postsynaptic neuron, muscles, or gland, consisting of the presynaptic terminal buttons, a tiny space and receptor sites typically on the postsynaptic dendrites
chemical secreted at terminal button that causes the neuron on the other side of the synapse to generate an action potential
chemical secreted at terminal button that reduces or prevents neural impulses in the postsynaptic dendrites
the path over which the reflex travels, which typically includes a receptor, sensory or afferent neuron, interneuron, motor or efferent neuron, and effector
cell typically in sense organs hat initiates action potentials which then travel along sensory/afferent neurons to the CNS
also called a sensory neruon. nerve cell in your PNS that transmits impulses from receptors to the brin or spinal cord
nerve cell int eh CNS that transmits impulses between sensory and motor neurons. neural impulses travel one way along the neuron from dendrites to axons to terminal buttons, and among neurons from the receptor to the effector.
also called a motor neuron, the nerve cell in your pns that transmits impulses from sensory or interneurons to muscle cells that contract or gland cells that secrete
ductless glands that typically secrete hormones directly into the b lood, which help regulate body and behavioral processes
endocrine gland in the brain that produces melatonin that helps regulate circadian rhythms and is associated with season affective disorder
endocrine gland in brain that produces stimulating hormones, which promote secretion by other important glands
endocrine gland in the nck that produces thyroxins, which stimulates and maintains metabolic activites
endocrine glands in neck that produce a hormone which helps maintain calcium ion level in blood necessary for normal functioning of neurons
outer layer of adrenal glands, produces steroid hormones such as cortisal,which is a stress hormone
the core of the adrenal glands, secretes adrenaline and non-adrenaline, which prepare the body for fight or flight like the sympathetic nervous system
gland near the stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate body sugar. imbalances result in diabetes and hypoglycemia
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together