141 terms

AP PSYCH

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monism
seeing the mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
dualism
seeing the mind and body as two different things that interact with each other
william james
wrote the book principles of psychology; a functionalist
Mary whiton calkins
first woman president of the American Psychological association
functionalism
early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to adapt to its environment
behavioral approach
psychological perspective concerned with behavioral reactions to stimuli; learning as a result of experience
Ivan Pavlov
known for classical conditioning of dogs
john watson
known for experiments in classical aversive conditioning
b f skinner
known for experiments in operant conditioning
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic approach
psychological perspective concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives, and defenses influence behavior
sigmund freud
father of psychoanalysis
humanistic approach
psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one's potential
carl rogers/abraham maslow
humanistic psychologists
biological approach
psychological perspective concerned with physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes
cognitive approach
psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; think/reason; and use language
jean piaget
studied cognitive development in children
evolutionary approach
psychological perspective concerned with how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival and spread of our ancestors's genes. look at universal behaviors shared by all people
sociocultural approach
psychological perspective concerned with how cultural differences affect behavior
eclectic
use of techniques and ideas from a variety of approaches
clinical psychologists
evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
counseling psychologist
help people adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle
developmental psychologists
study psychological development throughout the lifespan
educational psychologists
focus on how effective teaching and learning take place
engineering psychologists and human factors psychologists
people who do research on how people function best with machines
experimental psychologist
do research to add new knowledge to the field
forensic psychologists
apply psychological principles to legal issues
health psychologists
concentrate on biological, psychological and social factors involved in health and illness
industrial/organizational psychologists
aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace
neuropsychologist
explore the relationships between brain/nervous system and behavior.
personality psychologists
focus on traits, attitudes, and goals of the individual
psychometricians
focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data
theories
organized sets of concepts that explain phenomena
hypothesis
prediction of how two or more factors are likely to be related
replication
repetition of the methods used in a previous experiment to see whether the same methods will yield the same results
independent variable
the factor the researcher manipulates in a controlled experiment (cause)
dependent variable
the behavior or mental process that is measured in an experiment or quasi-experiment (effect)
population
all of the individuals in the group to which the study applies
sample
the subgroup of the population to which the study applies
random selection
choosing of members of a population so that every individual has an equal chance of being chosen
experimental group
the subgroup of the sample that receives the treatment or independent variable
control group
the comparison group; the subgroup of the sample that is similar to the experimental group in every way except for the presence of the independent variable
random assignment
division of the sample into groups so that every individual has an euql chance of being put in any group or condition
confounding variables
factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable
operational definition
a description of the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable
experimenter bias
a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
demand characteristics
clues participants discover about the purpose of the study that suggest how they should respond
single-blind procedure
research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group
double-blind procedure
research design in which neither participants nor observers know which group is controlled or experimented
placebo
a physical or psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experiment group but contains no active ingredient
placebo effect
a response to the belief that the independent variable will have an effect, rather than the actual effect of the independent variable. considered a confounding variable
reliability
consistency or repeatability of results
statistics
a field that involves the analysis of numerical information about representative sample of populations
variability
the spread or dispersion of a set of research data or distribution
standard deviation
measures the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set
normal distribution
bell-shaped curve that represents data about how lots of human characteristics are dispersed in the population
percentile scores
the percentage of scores at or below a particular score
inferential statistics
statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions
statistical significance (p)
the condition that exists when the probably that the observed findings are due to chance is less than 1/20
neuropsychologists
those who explore the relationships between brain/nervous systems and behavior.
lesions
precise destructions of brain tissue. enables more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications.
ablation
surgical removal of brain tissue
computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT)
shows structure and/or the extent of a lesion by creating a computerized image using x-rays passed through the brain
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
creates a more detailed computerized image by using a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves that cause emission of signals that depend up on the density of tissue.
EEG (electroencephalogram)
an amplified tracing of brain activity produced when electrodes positioned over the scalp transmit signals about the brain's electrical activity to a machine
evoked potentials
EEGs resulting from a response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject
positron emission tomography (PET)
shows brain activity when radioactively tagged glucose rushes to active neurons and emits positrons
functional MRI
shows brain activity at a higher resolution that the PET scan when changes in oxygen concentration near active neurons alter magnetic qualities
CNS (central nervous system)
brain and spinal cord
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
portion of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. includes all of the sensory and motor neurons, and subdivisions called the somatic and autonomic systems.
autonomic nervous system
subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves and innervate smooth and heart muscles.
sympathetic nervous system
subdivision of the ANS whose stimulation results in responses that helps your body deal with stressful events
parasympathetic nervous system
subdivision of ANS whose stimulation calms your body following sympathetic stimulation by restoring normal body processes
somatic nervous system
subdivision of the PNS that includes motor nerves that innervate skeletal (voluntary) muscle
spinal cord
portion of the cns below the level of the medulla
brain
portion of the cns above the spinal cord
reptilian brain (part of evolutionary model of the brain)
medulla pons cerebellum
old mammalian brain (part of the evolutionary model of the brain)
limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus
new mammalian brain (part of the evolutionary model of the brain)
cerebral cortex
hindbrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)
medulla pons cerebellum
midbrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)
region with parts involved in eye reflexes and movements
forebrain (part of the developmental model of the brain)
limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex
convolutions
wrinkles of the cerebral cortex that increases the surface area of the brain
gyri
folding out portions of the convolutions of the cerebral cortex
sulci
folding in portions of the convolutions of the cerebral cortex
contralaterality
control of one side of your body by the other side of your brain
medulla oblongata
regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing rate, digestion, vomiting
pons
includes portion of the reticular activating system or reticular formation critical for arousal and wakefulness; sends information to and from the medulla, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex
cerebellum
controls pressure, equilibrium, and movement
basal ganglia
regulates initiation of movements, balance, eye movements, and posture
thalamus
relays visual, auditory, taste, and somatosensory information to/from appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
controls feeding behavior, drinking behavior, body temperature, sexual behavior, threshold for rage behavior, action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system, and secretions of hormones of the pituitary
amygdala
influences emotions such as aggression, fear, and self-protective behaviors
hippocampus
enables formation of new long-term memories
cerebral cortex
center for higher order processes such as thinking, planning, judgement; receives and processes sensory information and directs movement
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortext that do not have specific sensory or motor functions, but are involved in higher mental functions such as thinking, planning, and communicating
occipital lobes
primary area for processing visual information
parietal lobes
front strip is somatosensory cortex that processes sensory information including touch, temperature, and pain from body parts; association areas perceive objects
frontal lobes
interpret and control emotional behaviors, make decisions, carry out plants; motor cortex strip just in front of somatosensory cortex initiates movements and integrates activities of skeletal muscles; produces speech (Broca's area)
broca's area
located in left frontal lobe. controls production of speech
temporal lobes
primary area for hearing, understanding language, understanding music/tonality, and processing smell
wernicke's area
located in temporal lobes. controls understanding of language and making meaningful languages
aphasia
impairment of the ability to understand or use language
glial cells
supportive cells of the nervous system that guide the growth of developing neurons. They help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of neurons. Also forma an insulating sheath around neurons that speeds conduction.
neuron
the basic unit of structure and function of your nervous system. receive, process, and transmit information.
cell body
also called the cyton or soma.part of the neuron that contains cytoplasm and the nucleus, which directs synthesis of such substances as neurotransmitters
axon
a long, single conduction fiber extending from the cell body of a neuron that transmits an action potential that branches and end sin tips called terminal buttons
dendrites
branching tubular processes of neuron that have receptor sites for receiving information
myelin sheath
a fatty covering of the axon made my glial cells, which speeds up conduction of the action potential
terminal buttons
tips at the end of axons that secrete neurotransmitters when stimulated by the action potential
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers released by the terminal buttons of the presynaptic neuron into the synapse
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart muscles, is involved in memory and also transmits messages between the brain and spinal cord. lack of this is associated with alzheimer's disease.
dopamine
neurotransmitter that stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize hormones and affects alertness, attention, and movement. lack associated w/ parkinsons, access associated w/ schizophrenia
glutamate
neurotransmitter that stimulates cells throughout the brain, but especially in the hypothalamus. associated with memory formation and information processing
serotonin
neurotransmitter associate with arousal, sleep, appetite, moods, and emotions. lack is associated with depression
endorphin
a neurotransmitter similar to the opiate morphine that relieves pain and may induce feelings of pleasure
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
a neurotransmitter that inhibits firing of postsynapitic neurons. Huntington's disease and seizures are associated with malfunctions of these systems
action potential
firing of a neuron. a net flow of sodium ions into the cell that causes a rapid change in potential across the membrane when stimulation reaches a threshold
all-or-none principle
that law that the neurons either generates an action potential when the stimulated reaches a threshold or doesn't fire when stimulation is below threshold. the strength of the action potential is constant whenever it occurs
nodes of ranvier
spaces between segments of myelin on the axons of the neurons
saltatory conduction
rapid conduction of impulses when the axon is myelinated since depolarizations jump from node to node
synapse
region of communication between the transmitting presynaptic neuron and receiving postsynaptic neuron, muscles, or gland, consisting of the presynaptic terminal buttons, a tiny space and receptor sites typically on the postsynaptic dendrites
excitatory neurotransmitter
chemical secreted at terminal button that causes the neuron on the other side of the synapse to generate an action potential
inhibitory neurotransmitter
chemical secreted at terminal button that reduces or prevents neural impulses in the postsynaptic dendrites
reflex
simplest form of behavior
reflex arc
the path over which the reflex travels, which typically includes a receptor, sensory or afferent neuron, interneuron, motor or efferent neuron, and effector
sensory receptor
cell typically in sense organs hat initiates action potentials which then travel along sensory/afferent neurons to the CNS
afferent neuron
also called a sensory neruon. nerve cell in your PNS that transmits impulses from receptors to the brin or spinal cord
interneuron
nerve cell int eh CNS that transmits impulses between sensory and motor neurons. neural impulses travel one way along the neuron from dendrites to axons to terminal buttons, and among neurons from the receptor to the effector.
efferent neuron
also called a motor neuron, the nerve cell in your pns that transmits impulses from sensory or interneurons to muscle cells that contract or gland cells that secrete
effector
muscle cell that contracts or gland cell that secretes
endocrine system
ductless glands that typically secrete hormones directly into the b lood, which help regulate body and behavioral processes
hormone
chemical messenger that travels through the blood to a receptor site on a target organ
pineal gland
endocrine gland in the brain that produces melatonin that helps regulate circadian rhythms and is associated with season affective disorder
pituitary gland
endocrine gland in brain that produces stimulating hormones, which promote secretion by other important glands
thyroid gland
endocrine gland in the nck that produces thyroxins, which stimulates and maintains metabolic activites
parathyroids
endocrine glands in neck that produce a hormone which helps maintain calcium ion level in blood necessary for normal functioning of neurons
adrenal glands
endocrine glands atop the kidneys.
adrenal cortex
outer layer of adrenal glands, produces steroid hormones such as cortisal,which is a stress hormone
adrenal medulla
the core of the adrenal glands, secretes adrenaline and non-adrenaline, which prepare the body for fight or flight like the sympathetic nervous system
pancreas
gland near the stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate body sugar. imbalances result in diabetes and hypoglycemia
ovaries and testes
gonad in females and males respectively that produce hormones necessary for reproduction and development of secondary sex characteristics