Political Machines and Boss Tweed
Terms in this set (31)
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million.
Civil Service system
the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit
Election of 1896
William McKinley (rep) vs. Willism Jennings Bryan (dem, supported by populists who ran their VP), main topic was currency (Bryan pro free silver, Mckinley against free silver), Mckinley wins
The illegal use of political influence for personal gain
the right of citizens to place a measure of issue before the voters or the legilasture for approval
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism
A Civil Service Commission was created.
It Established job classifications.
A testing system for potential applicants.
Federal employees would no longer be coerced into making campaign contributions.
Federal civil service workers would no longer be able to be fired for political reasons
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
the act of removing an official by petition
a voting method in which no one knows how anyone else has voted
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
describes how elected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of their qualifications.
As the result of "spoils," government became packed full of unqualified, dishonest employees.
a practice used by the railroads which involved partial refunds to favored customers.
describes a period in our country's history that:
Economically, there was a thin layer
of "prosperity," while at the same
time, there was much poverty and
Under this philosophy,
The strongest and most capable businesses will survive and thrive.
Weaker businesses will fade and ultimately disappear.
a payment made by government to encourage the development and manufacture of certain products or industries.
Unfortunately, during the gilded age, subsidies were sometimes abused by corrupt individuals.
a tax placed on foreign goods.
It is sometimes called a "protective" tariff because its purpose is to protect American industry - places taxes on lesser expensive foreign made goods.
Rutherford B. Hayes
election as president, in 1877, refused to use the patronage system.
He began appointing qualified individuals to government positions - taking a first step towards the reform of the civil service system
He was assassinated in 1881 by a "stalwart," an individual in favor of the continuation of the patronage system.
Chester A. Arthur
previously benefited from patronage, once he became president, he pushed to put an end to this practice.
He asked Congress to come up with a plan to reform the patronage system - was the Pendleton Civil Service Act
was for discussion of politics in the new nation.
The club was organized with titles and rituals based, quite loosely, on Native American lore
Political machines also often accepted payments from criminal enterprises in exchange for protection from police interference with their activities.
In NYC, for example, protection money paid by gambling and prostitution rackets
reformers at the turn of the century successfully compelled local gov'ts to introduce civil service systems to replace party patronage in gov't employment
On Election Day, an army of small-time thugs and hoodlums returned the favors of the Tweed Ring by stuffing ballot boxes with votes for Tweed and intimidating voters
Explain the significance of this quote: "I don't care a straw for your newspaper articles; my constituents don't know how to read, but they can't help seeing them damned pictures."
Discuss the influence that political machines had over citizens' everyday lives, based on their voting practices.
Determine how Boss Tweed and the corruption of Tammany Hall led to the cholera epidemic of 1870. (Think garbage pick up and the workers that are "supposed" to be doing those jobs.)
How did the corruption of Tammany Hall impact the budget and debt of NYC? Remember after 1 year the deficit was over $97,000,00!
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Immigration, tenements, ghettos, "Boss" Tweed, and Industries