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92 terms

Vitamins & Minerals

Chapters 8 & 9
STUDY
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Important dietary sources of vitamin A
liver, milk, butter, cheese, fortified margarine; carrots, spinach, and other orange and deep green vegetables and fruits
major functions of vitamin A
maintenance of vision, skin, linings of the nose, mouth, digestive and urinary tracts, immune function
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin A
night blindness; dry, scaling skin; increased susceptibility to infection; loss of appetite; anemia; kidney stones
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin A
liver damage, miscarriage and birth defects, headache, vomiting and diarrhea, vertigo, double vision, bone abnormalities
important dietary sources of vitamin D
fortified milk and margarine, fish oils, butter, egg yolks (sunlight on skin also produces vitamin D)
major functions of vitamin D
development and maintenance of bones and teeth; promotion of calcium absorption
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin D
rickets (bone deformities) in children; bone softening, loss, fractures in adults
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin D
kidney damage, calcium deposits in soft tissues, depression, death
important dietary sources of vitamin E
vegetables oils, whole grains, nuts and seeds, green leafy vegetables, asparagus, peaches
major functions of vitamin E
protection and maintenance of cellular membranes
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin E
red blood cell breakage and anemia, weakness, neurological problems, muscle cramps
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin E
relatively nontoxic but may cause excess bleeding or formation of blood clots
important dietary sources of vitamin K
Green leafy vegetables; smaller amounts wide-spread in other foods
major functions of vitamin K
production of factors essential for blood clotting and bone metabolism
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin K
Hemorrhaging
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin K
none reported
important dietary sources of biotin
cereals, yeast, egg yolks, soy flour, liver; widespread in foods
major functions of biotin
synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids
signs of prolonged deficiency of biotin
rash, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, depression, fatigue, hair loss
toxic effects of megadoses of biotin
none reported
important dietary sources of folate
green leafy vegetables, yeast, oranges, whole grains, legumes, liver
major functions of folate
amino acid metabolism, synthesis of RNA and DNA, new cell synthesis
signs of prolonged deficiency of folate
anemia, weakness, fatigue, irritability, shortness of breath, swollen tongue
toxic effects of megadoses of folate
masking of vitamin B-12 deficiency
important dietary sources of niacin
eggs, poultry, fish, milk, whole grains, nuts, enriched breads and cereals, meats, legumes
major functions of niacin
conversion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into usable forms of energy
signs of prolonged deficiency of niacin
pellagra (symptoms include diarrhea, dermatitis, inflammation of mucous membranes, dementia
toxic effects of megadoses of niacin
flushing of skin, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, liver dysfunction, glucose intolerance
important dietary sources of pantothenic acid
animal foods, whole grains, broccoli, potatoes; wide-spread in foods
major functions of pantothenic acid
metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins
signs of prolonged deficiency of pantothenic acid
fatigue, numbness and tingling of hands and feet, gastrointestinal disturbances
toxic effects of megadoses of pantothenic acid
none reported
important dietary sources of riboflavin
dairy products, enriched breads and cereals, lean meats, poultry, fish, green vegetables
major functions of riboflavin
energy metabolism; maintenance of skin, mucous membranes, nervous system structures
signs of prolonged deficiency of riboflavin
cracks at corners of mouth, sore throat, skin rash, hypersensitivity to light, purple tongue
toxic effects of megadoses of riboflavin
none reported
important dietary sources of thiamin
whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals, organ meats, lean pork, nuts, legumes
major functions of thiamin
conversion of carbohydrates into usable forms of energy; maintenance of appetite and nervous system function
signs of prolonged deficiency of thiamin
beriberi (symptoms include muscle wasting, mental confusion, anorexia, enlarged heart, nerve changes)
toxic effects of megadoses of thiamin
none reported
important dietary sources of vitamin B-6
eggs, poultry, fish, whole grains, nuts, soybeans, liver, kidney, pork
major functions of vitamin B-6
metabolism of amino acids and glycogen
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin B-6
anemia, convulsions, cracks at corners of mouth, dermatitis, nausea, confusion
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin B-6
neurological abnormalities and damage
important dietary sources of vitamin B-12
meat, fish, poultry, fortified cereals
major functions of vitamin B-12
synthesis of blood cells; other metabolic reactions
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin B-12
anemia, fatigue, nervous system damage, sore tongue
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin B-12
none reported
important dietary sources of vitamin C
peppers, broccoli, brussels sprouts, spinach, citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, other fruits and vegetables
major functions of vitamin C
maintenance and repair of connective tissue, bones, teeth, cartilage; promotion of healing; aid in iron absorption
signs of prolonged deficiency of vitamin C
scurvy, anemia, reduced resistance to infection, loosened teeth, joint pain, poor would healing, hair loss, poor iron absorption
toxic effects of megadoses of vitamin C
urinary stones in some people, acid stomach from ingesting supplements in pill form, nausea, diarrhea, headache, fatigue
important dietary sources of calcium
milk and milk products, tofu, fortified orange juice and bread, green leafy vegetables, bones in fish
major functions of calcium
formation of bones and teeth; control of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood clotting
signs of prolonged deficiency of calcium
stunted growth in children, bone mineral loss in adults, urinary stones
toxic effects of megadoses of calcium
kidney stones, calcium deposits in soft tissues, inhibition of mineral absorption, constipation
important dietary sources of fluoride
fluoridated water, tea, marine fish eaten with bones
major functions of fluoride
maintenance of tooth and bone structure
signs of prolonged deficiency of fluoride
higher frequency of tooth decay
toxic effects of megadoses of fluoride
increased bone density, mottling of teeth, impaired kidney function
important dietary sources of iodine
iodized salt, seafood, processed foods
major functions of iodine
essential part of thyroid hormones, regulation of body metabolism
signs of prolonged deficiency of iodine
goiter (enlarged thyroid), cretinism (birth defect)
toxic effects of megadoses of iodine
depression of thyroid activity, hyperthyroidism in susceptible people
important dietary sources of iron
meat and poultry, fortified grain products, dark green vegetables, dried fruit
major functions of iron
component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and enzymes
signs of prolonged deficiency of iron
inron-deficiency anemia, weakness, impaired immune function
toxic effects of megadoses of iron
nausea, diarrhea, liver and kidney damage, joint pains, sterility, disruption
important dietary sources of magnesium
widespread in foods and water (except soft water); especially found in grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, green vegetables, milk
major functions of magnesium
transmission of nerve impulses, energy transfer, activation of many enzymes
signs of prolonged deficiency of magnesium
gastrointestinal distress, neurological disturbances, cardiovascular problems, kidney disorders, nausea, growth failure in children
toxic effects of megadoses of magnesium
of cardiac function, death, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, central nervous system depression, coma; death in people with
important dietary sources of phosphorus
present in nearly all foods, especially milk, cereal, peas, eggs, meat
major functions of phosphorus
bone growth and maintenance, energy transfer in cells
signs of prolonged deficiency of phosphorus
impaired growth, weakness, kidney disorders, cardiorespiratory and nervous system dysfunction
toxic effects of megadoses of phosphorus
impaired kidney function, drip in blood calcium levels, calcium deposits in soft tissues, bone loss
important dietary sources of potassium
meats, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes
major functions of potassium
nerve function and body water balance
signs of prolonged deficiency of potassium
muscular weakness, nausea, drowsiness, paralysis, confusion, disruption of cardiac rhythm
toxic effects of megadoses of potassium
cardiac arrest
important dietary sources of selenium
seafood, meat, eggs, whole grains
major functions of selenium
defense against oxidative stress; regulation of thyroid hormone action
signs of prolonged deficiency of selenium
muscle pain and weakness, heart disorders
toxic effects of megadoses of selenium
hair and nail loss, nausea and vomiting, weakness, irritability
important dietary sources of sodium
salt, soy sauce, fast food, processed foods, especially lunch meats, canned soups and vegetables, salty snacks, processed cheese
major functions of sodium
body water balance, acid-base balance, nerve function
signs of prolonged deficiency of sodium
muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting; deficiency rarely seen
toxic effects of megadoses of sodium
edema, hypertension in sensitive people
important dietary sources of zinc
whole grains, meat, eggs, liver, seafood (especially oysters)
major functions of zinc
synthesis of proteins, RNA, and DNA; wound healing; immune response; ability to taste
signs of prolonged deficiency of zinc
growth failure, loss of appetite, impaired taste acuity, skin rash, impaired immune function, poor wound healing
toxic effects of megadoses of zinc
vomiting, impaired immune function, decline in blood HDL levels, impaired copper absorption