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Periodic Table Study Guide Ch 4

STUDY
PLAY
What are the subatomic particles?
protons, neutrons, and electrons
Atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Why are atoms electrically neutral?
the number of protons equals the number of electrons
What is the Charge, mass and location of a proton?
C-1+
M-1
L-nucleus
What is the Charge, mass and location of a neutron?
C-0
M-1
L-nucleus
What is the Charge, mass and location of an electron?
C-1-
M-1/1836
L-electron cloud
How did Mendeleev organize the first periodic table of elements?
in order of increasing atomic mass
How are the elements arranged in the modern periodic table?
in order of increasing atomic number from left to right and top to bottom
What are columns in the periodic table called?
groups of families
What do elements in the same family or group have in common?
same number of valence electrons
Luster
the state or quality of shining by reflecting light
Malleability
a term used to describe material that can be pounded into shapes
Magnetism
the properties of attracting to a magnet
Electrical conductivity
the ability of an object to transfer electric current
Ductile
a term used to describe a material that can be pulled oout into a long wire
What are the three categories of elements on the periodic table?
metal, nonmetal, semi metal
What is the family name for group 1 elements?
alkali metals
What is the family name for group 2 elements?
alkaline earth metals
What is the family name for group 17 elements?
halogens
What is the family name for group 18 elements?
inert gases
What is the most reactive group of metals?
alkali metals
What is the most reactive group of nonmetals?
halogens
What are the two most common alkali metals?
Sodium, Potassium
What are the two most common alkaline earth metals?
Calcium, Magnesium
Which group of elements do not ordinarily form compounds?
Inert gases/ group 18
What is the most useful property of semi metals?
semi conductors
What happens during radioactive decay?
the atomic nuclei of unstable isotopes release fast moving particles and energy called radiation
Periods
horizontal rows on the periodic table
Chemical symbol
a one or two letter representation of an element
In which state of matter are most nonmetals?
gases
Semiconductor
a material that conducts current under certain conditions
What happens to the reactivity of metals as you move from left to right across the periodic table?
less reactive
Atomic number equals the number of_____
protons
Atomic mass equals the number of___+___
protons+ neutrons
The number of electrons equals the number of___
protons
Properties of Alkali metals
very reactive, very soft, never found uncombined in nature, shiny, malleable, react violently with water
What is the name of the elements in groups 3-12?
transition metals
Isotopes
an atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element
What are the seven diatomic particles?
Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
What can you predict from an elements location on the periodic table?
properties
Which part of an atom makes up most of its atomic mass?
nucleus
Which part of an atom makes up most of its volume?
electron cloud
What do elements in the same period have in common?
same number of energy levels
What part of an isotope increases as you go left to right?
neutrons