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66 terms

Rockets AP Psychology Chapter 4

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sensation
the process by which stimulation of a sensory receptor produces neural impulses that the brain interprets as a sound, a visual image, an odor, a taste, a pain, or other sensory image. Sensation represents the first series of steps in processing of incoming information
perception
a process that makes sensory patterns meaningful. It is perception that makes these words meaningful, rather than just a string of visual patterns. To make this happen, perception draws heavily on memory, motivation, emotion, and other psychological processes
transduction
transformation of one form of energy into another-especially the transformation of stimulus information into nerve signals by the sense organs. Without transduction, ripe tomatoes would not appear red (or pinking-gray, in the case of tomatoes purchased in many grocery stores)
sensory adaptation
loss of responsiveness in receptor cells that after stimulation has remained unchanged for a while, as when a swimmer becomes adapted to the temperature of the water
absolute threshold
the amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected. In practice, this means that the presence or absence of a stimulus is detected correctly half the time over many trials
difference threshold
The smallest amount by which a stimulus can be changed and the difference be detected half the time
just noticeable difference
(JND) same as the difference threshold
Weber's law
this concept says that the size of a JND is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus; the JND is large when the stimulus intensity is high and is small when the stimulus intensity is low
Fechner's law
the magnitude of a stimulus can be estimated by the formula S=k log R, where S= sensation, R = stimulus, and k= a constant that differs for each sensory modality (sight, touch, temperature, etc.)
Steven's power law
a law of magnitude estimation that is more accurate than Fechner's law and covers a wider variety of stimuli. It is represented by the formula S=kla, where S= sensation, k= a constant, I= stimulus intensity, and a= a power exponent that depends on the sense being measured
signal detection theory
explains how we detect "signals," consisting of stimulation affecting our eyes, ears, nose, skin, and other sense organs. Signal detection theory says that sensation is judgment the sensory system makes about incoming stimulation. Often, it occurs outside of consciousness. In contrast to older theories from psychophysics, signal detection theory takes observer characteristics into account
retina
the thin, light-sensitive layer at the back of the eyeball. The retina contains millions of photoreceptors and other nerve cells
photoreceptors
light-sensitive cells (neurons) in the retina that convert light energy to neural impulses. The photoreceptors are as far as light gets into the visual system
rods
photoreceptors in the retina that are especially sensitive to dim light but not to colors
cones
photoreceptors in the retina that are especially to colors but not to dim light
fovea
the tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina
optic nerve
the bundle of neurons that carries visual information from the retina to the brain
blind spot
the point where the optic nerve exits the eye and where there are no photoreceptors. Any stimulus that falls on this area cannot be seen
brightness
a psychological sensation caused by the intensity of light waves
color
also called hue. Color is not a property of things in the external world. Rather, it is a psychological sensation created in the brain from information obtained by the eyes from the wavelengths of visible light
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire range of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves, X rays, microwaves, and visible light
visible spectrum
the tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive. The visible spectrum of other creatures may be slightly different from our own
trichromatic theory
the idea that colors are sensed by three different types of cones sensitive to light in the red, blue, and green wavelengths. The trichromatic theory explains the earliest stage of color sensation
opponent-process theory
the idea that cells in the visual system process colors in complementary pairs, such as red or green or as yellow or blue. The opponent-process theory explains color sensation from the bipolar cells onward in the visual system
afterimages
sensations that linger after the stimulus is removed. Most visual images are negative afterimages, which appear in reversed color
color blindness
Typically a genetic disorder (although sometimes the result of trauma, as in the case of Jonathan) that prevents an individual from discriminating certain colors. The most common form is rd-green color blindness
frequency
The number of cycles completed by a wave in a given amount of time, usually a second
amplitude
the physical strength of a wave. This is usually measured from peak (top) to valley (bottom) on a graph of the wave
tympanic membrane
the eardrum
cochlea
the primary organ of hearing; a coiled tube in the inner ear, where sound waves are transduced into nerve messages
basilar membrane
a thin strip of tissue sensitive to vibrations in the cochlea. The basilar membrane contains hair cells connected to neurons. When a sound wave causes the hair cells to vibrate, the associated neurons become exited. As a result, the sound waves are converted (transduced) into nerve activity
pitch
the sensory characteristic of sound produced by the frequency of the sound wave
loudness
a sensory characteristic of sound produced by the amplitude (intensity) of the sound wave
timbre
the quality of a sound wave that derives from the wave's complexity (combination of pure tones). Timbre comes from the Greek word for "drum", as does the term tympanic membrane, or eardrum
conduction deafness
an inability to hear resulting from damage to structures of the middle or inner ear
nerve deafness (sensorineural deafness)
an inability to hear, linked to a deficit in the body's ability to transmit impulses from the cochlea to the brain, usually involving the auditory nerve or higher auditory processing centers
vestibular sense
the sense of body orientation with respect to gravity. The vestibular sense is closely associated with the inner ear and, in fact, is carried to the brain on a branch of the auditory nerve
kinesthetic sense
the sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other (also called kinesthesis)
olfaction
the sense of smell
pheromones
chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of their species. Pheromones are often used by animals as sexual attractants. It is unclear whether or not humans employ pheromones.
gustation
the sense of taste- from the same word as "gusto" - also called the gustatory sense
skin senses
sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, and pain
gate-control theory
an explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural "gate" that can, under some circumstances, block incoming pain signals
placebo effect
a response to a placebo (fake drug), caused by subjects' belief that they are taking real drugs
percept
the meaningful product of perception- often an image that has been associated with concepts, memories of events, emotions, and motives
feature detectors
cells in the cortex that specialize in extracting certain features of a stimulus
binding problem
refers to the process used by the brain to combine (or "bind") the results of many sensory operations into a single percept. This occurs, for example, when sensations of color, shape, boundary, and texture are combined to produce the percept of a person's face. No one knows exactly how the brain does this. Thus the binding problem is one of the major unsolved mysteries in psychology
bottom-up processing
perceptual analysis that emphasizes characteristic of the stimulus, rather than our concepts and expectations. "Bottom" refers to the stimulus, which occurs at step one of perceptual processing
top-down processing
perceptual analysis that emphasizes the perceiver's expectations, concept memories, and other cognitive factors, rather than being driven by the characteristics of the stimulus. "Top" refers to a mental set in the brain- which stands at the "top" of the perceptual processing system
perceptual consistency
the ability to recognize the same object as remaining "constant" under different conditions, such as changes in illumination, distance, or location
illusion
you have experienced an illusion when you have demonstrably incorrect perception of a stimulus patter, especially one that also fools others who are observing the same stimulus. (If no one else sees it the way you do, you could be having a delusion or a hallucination.)
ambiguous figure
images that are capable of more than one interpretation. There is no "right" way to see an ambiguous figure
Gestalt psychology
from a German word (pronounced gush-TAWLT) that means "whole" or "form" or "configuration." (A Gestalt is also a percept.) The Gestalt psychologists believed that much of perception is shaped by innate factors built into the brain
figure
the part of a pattern that commands attention. The figure stands out against the ground
ground
the part of a pattern that does not command attention; the background
closure
the Gestalt principle that identifies the tendency to fill in gaps in figures and to see incomplete figures as complete
law of perceptual grouping
the Gestalt principles of similarity, proximity, continuity, and common fate. These "laws" suggest how our brains prefer to group stimulus elements together from a percept (Gestalt)
law of similarity
the Gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together in our perceptions
law of proximity
the Gestalt principle that we tend to group objects together when they are near each other. Proximity means "nearness."
law of continuity
the Gestalt principle that we prefer perceptions of connected and continuous figures to disconnected and disjointed ones
law of common fate
the Gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion or destination
law of Pragnanz
the most general Gestalt principle, which states that the simplest organization, requiring the least cognitive effort, will emerge as the figure. Pragnanz shares a common root with pregnant, and so it carries the idea of a "fully developed figure." That is, our perceptual system prefers to see a fully developed Gestalt, such as a complete circle- as opposed to a broken circle
binocular cues
information taken in by both eyes that aids in depth perception, including binocular convergence and retinal disparity
monocular cues
information about depth that relies on the input of just one eye- includes relative size, light, and shadow, interposition, relative motion, and atmospheric perspective
learning-based inference
the view that perception is primarily shaped by learning (or experience), rather than by innate factors
perceptual set
readiness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context- as when a person who is afraid interprets an unfamiliar sound in the night as a threat