30 terms

Chapter 7 family relationships

STUDY
PLAY
sexual orientation
whether an individual is drawn to a partner of the same sex or not
heterosexual
attracted to the opposite sex
homosexual
attracted to the same sex; sexual attraction for the same sex occurs as early as 10 for boys and 14 for girls; same sex sexual activity usually beings at 14 for boys and 16 for girls
bisexual
attracted to both sexes; freud, Kinsey, and many present day psychologists maintain that humans are inherently bisexual
asexual
may desire intimate relationships with either, but not just sexual ones; they feel no desire for partnered sexuality
structural-functional perspective
sees sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it serves the societal function of responsible reproduction
biological perspective
considers that humans are designed for the purpose of transmitting their genes to the next generation
exchange perspective
women's sexuality and associated fertility are resources that can be exchanged for economic support, protection, and status in society
interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction
satisfaction is seen to depend on the costs and rewards of a sexual relationship, as well as the participants comparison level
interactionist perspective
emphasizes the interpersonal negotiation of relationships in the context of sexual scripts; A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole;
interactionist perspective on Human sexuality
women and men are influenced by the sexual scripts that they learn from their culture
patriarchal sexuality (colonial times)
characterized by many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors developed to protect the male line of descent; men are to control women's sexuality; men are thought to be born with an urgent sex drive, whereas women are seen as naturally sexually passive; men are much more likely to think about sex, to have multiple partners, and be more excited by the prospect of group sex
expressive sexuality (20th cent)
see sexuality as basic to the humanness of both men and women; there is no one-sided since of ownership; orgasm is important for women as well as for men; sex is no only for reproduction, but is also an important means of enhancing human intimacy
heterosexism
the taken for granted system of beliefs, values, and customs that places superior value on heterosexual behavior and that denies or stigmatizes non-heterosexual relations
homophobia
viewing homosexuals with fear, dread, aversion, or hatred
4 standards of non-martial sex
abstinence, permissiveness with affection, permissiveness without affection (recreational sex); double standard
abstinence
regardless of the circumstances, non-marital intercourse is wrong for both men and women; teen who do not engage in sexual activity give conservative values for fear of pregnancy, disease, or parents as reasons
permissiveness with affection
permits non-marital intercourse for both men and women equally, provided that they have a fairly stable relationship; most widespread sexual norm among unmarried
permissiveness without affection (recreational sex)
allows intercourse for women and men regardless how much stability or affection is in their relationship; "friends with benefit" and "hook up"
Double standard
women's sexual behavior must be more conservative than mens
cyber adultery
adultery on the internet
habituation hypothesis
Familiarity reduces rewards of a sexual encounter with a spouse or partner compared to a new partner (longer relationship, higher risk of affair)
habituation
the decreased interest in sex that results from the increased accessibility of a sexual partner and the predictability in sexual behavior with that partner over time; seem to occur early in marriage; sexual frequency declines sharply after about the first year of marriage no matter how old the partners are; two components- a reduction in the novelty of the physical pleasure provided by sex with a particular partner and a reduction in the perceived need to maintain high levels of sexual behavior
pleasure bond
partners commit themselves to expressing their sexual feelings with each other
sexual responsibility
responsibility for his or her own sexual response
pleasuring
Spontaneously doing what feels good at the moment during a sexual encounter, rather than working to produce it
spectatoring
A term Masters and Johnson coined to describe the practice of emotionally removing oneself from a sexual encounter in order to watch oneself and see how one is doing
Holistic view of sex
To see sex as an extension of the whole relationship rather than as a purely physical exchange, a seperate aspect of marriage.
HIV/AIDS
human immunodeficiency virus, which produces AIDS; A Virus that destroys the immune system that should protect the body from diseases. The disease is passed from person to person through sexual acts, blood transfusions, used hypodermic needles, or from mother to child during birth or breast-feeding
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)
Category of disease spread by sexual contact; including chlamydia; genital warts; syphilis; gonorrhea; and HIV; also called venereal diseases; 19 million new cases arise each year