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A brief collection of flashcards on the topic of the IGCSE coasts unit. Reliable and easy to understand!
Terms in this set (30)
The process of a breaking wave hurling materials such as pebbles or shingle, hit against a cliff face.
The wearing away of land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, or drainage.
The process where eroded material, such as rock, is worn down to form smaller, rounded beach material.
This occurs when waves hit against a cliff face. Trapped air is put under great pressure yet when the wave retreats, the build up of pressure is released with explosive force. This makes the most impact during storms.
When wave refractions distributes wave energy along a coastline with alternating headlands and bays, erosive activity happens, hindering full refraction - this creates massive forces that transports the material along the coast. Swash moves up the beach in one direction while backwash drains the opposite way.
The geological process by which material is added to a landform or land mass. Fluids such as wind and water transport previously eroded sediment, which, at the loss of enough kinetic energy in the fluid, is deposited, building up layers of sediment.
Areas where the lands are curved due to erosion in beds of weaker rock. Wave refraction on the bay disperses energy around the bay and focuses wave energy on the flanks of the headlands.
The same as a Bay yet harder rock form the headlands.
Created by hydraulic action (pressure). It will form a cave over time.
This forms as the result of hydraulic action/abrasion.
It is common for sea arches to form when a rocky coast undergoes erosion and a wave-cut platform develops
Created by abrasion, it is also the next step of marine erosion after a joint.
Created by solution/abrasion, was formerly an arch.
Created by solution, was formerly a stack and over time it becomes new beach material.
Wave cut platform
A sloping, rocky platform left behind as a cliff retreats. It is exposed at low tide.
Composed of coarse sands or shingle. This is the foreshore of the beach that is pushed up by material when the offshore gradient is low.
A beach is the accumulation of material deposited between low spring tides and the highest point reached by storm waves at high spring tides. A beach has 3 zones, the backshore, foreshore and offshore
A beach of sand or shingle linked at one end to land. It is found on indented coastlines or at river mouths.
Ridges that link the mainland to an island. Ex. Lumley area of Sierra Leone.
The water that rolls back down a beach after a wave has broken.
These are low energy, less than one meter waves that have strong swash yet weak backwash. They also deposit material on the beach.
These are high energy, more than 1 meter tall waves which weak swash but strong backwash. They also erode material from the beach.
When the wind blows for a very long time and across a large distance of water called fetch. These create very large waves.
This is a turbulent layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken.
Small rocks held in wire cages, used to manage coastal and sea defenses. They are an example of hard engineering and are cheap yet have a short lifespan.
Barrier of resistant timber or concrete piles driver into beach. Hold beach material threatened by long shore drift.
Massive, made of rocks or concrete and absorb waves. They are porous or act as baffles. These are cheap yet do not cope well with strong storm waves.
Massive structures made of concrete. Used to reflect rather than prevent waves.
Large rocks at foot of seawalls or cliffs made to absorb waves. They are very cheap and have a long lifespan.
When waves approach the shore they create friction with the seabeds, causing the wave front to become distorted or refracted as the speed of the wave is reduced. If refraction is completed, the wave fronts break parallel to the shore.
Occurs on limestone or chalk. Calcium carbonate dissolves in the acidic waters.