472 terms

Everything Possible for the NIC Written Exam - ASL Interpreting

Acronyms, definitions, and important information that you need to know to pass the NIC written Knowledge Exam.

Terms in this set (...)

What does ADA stand for and what year was it passed?
Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990
What are the 3 levels of the NIC
Certified, Advanced, and Mastered
Certificate of Interpretation
Certificate of Transliteration
Oral Transliteration Certificate
Specialist Certificate: Legal
Conditional Legal Interpreting Permit-Relay
Master Comprehensive Skills Certificate
Comprehensive Skills Certificate
Oral Interpreting Certificate
Reverse Skills Certificate
NAD: Level III
National Association of the Deaf - Generalist
NAD: Level IV
National Association of the Deaf - Advanced
NAD: Level V
National Association of the Deaf - Master
Interpretation Certificate
Transliteration Certificate
American Consortium of Certified Interpreters
Specialist Certificate: Performance Arts
Conditional Legal Interpreting Permit
Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment
Continuing Education Units
Certification Maintenance Program
Associate Continuing Education Tracking
-Participation in ACET allows RID to track your completion of CEUs for you.
Who can become an CMP approved sponsor?
The PDC is responsible for approving applications for organizations, agencies, and individuals to become approved sponsors.
Professional Development Committee
What is the approved sponsors role?
To provide appropriate educational opportunities to interpreters. Those opportunities are pre-approved to provide CEUs
When did CMP begin operation?
July 1, 1994
What are the requirements for obtaining CEUs?
All members who are certified interpreters are required to complete 8.0 CEUs (80 contact hours) within four years.
6.0 CEUs must be professional studies content
2.0 CEUs can be general studies
Participant-Initiated Non-RID Activities
Examples: audited college course, organizational conventions, community education, etc.
Conference of Interpreter Trainers
-the professional organization of interpreter educators
Mano a Mano
National Organization of interpreters who work in Spanish-Influenced settings
National Alliance of Black Interpreters, INc.
The International Association of Conference Interpreters (the only worldwide association for conference interpreters)
World Association of Sign Language Interpreters
Communication Access Realtime Translation
American Association of the Deaf-Blind
Coalition of Organizations for Accessible Technology
Intertribal Deaf Council
(similar to native american organizations)
National Asian Deaf Congress
National Black Deaf Advocates
World Federation of the Deaf
Described and Captioned Media Program
-equal access to media. DCMP acts as a captioning info and training center
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders: focused on medical information and research.
Promoting Awareness in Healthcare, Medical and Deaf
National Disability Rights Network
Disabled People's Association
Who is Alice Cogswell
The 9 year old girl neighbor of Gallaudets that inspired Gallaudet to educate deaf people.
Who accompanied Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet back to America?
Laurent Clerc
What year did ASD open?
American School for the Deaf opened in 1817.
In what year, and by whom, was the now Gallaudet University founded?
Thomas Gallaudet's son, Edward founded what was then called "The National Deaf-Mute College" in 1864
National Theatre for the Deaf was established in what year?
Explain what the Milan Conference is and what year it took place.
September 6-11, 1880 an innational conference of Deaf educators was held. A declaration was made that oral education was better than any manual sign language form of education so they outlawed the use of sign language in education.
What year did Deaf President Now take place?
March 1988
What was the name of the hearing president that was forced to resign after DPN and the name of the president who was later welcomed?
Elizabeth A. Zinswer resigned a few days after the protests began and by the end of the week Dr. I. King Jordan became Gallaudet's first Deaf president.
Which tenet address multiple roles in interpreting?
Tenet 3.3 guides interpreters to avoid role conflicts, "avoid performing dual or conflicting roles in multidisciplinary or other settings."
What is the number one determining factor in deciding a team of interpreters is needed?
The difficulty of the assignment
What is RSI?
Repetitive Strain Injury is a stress-related, cumulative type of injury resulting from repetitive movements.
RSIs are also often referred to as what?
cumulative trauma disorder, muscle-skeletal disorder, repetitive motion injuries, tennis elbow, and mouse thumb
The most common early symptoms of RSI for interpreters are what?
Pain, stiffness, numbness, and burning starting in the neck and often going down into the arm and hands.
National Interpreter Education Center
Project TIEM
Hosted by NIEC, project Teaching INterpreting Educators and Mentors provides a list of resources for how to contact a mentor as well as provide support for what that mentorship relationship should look like.
ADA was enacted in which year?
What section of the ADA are interpreters addressed?
Under Title III.V Interpreters are considered a type of auxiliary aid that is required to be provided for communication with any individuals with hearing impairments.
Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education: was established to promote professionalism by provided accreditation to ITPs
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers
American Sign Language Teachers Association
National Testing System (for RID)
National Council on Interpreting
-formed by NAD and RID to Develop the National Interpreter Certification exam.
In what year was RID established and why was it founded then?
June 14-17 in 1964 in Muncie Indiana a workshop was held to bring more structure and foundation to the training of interpreters.
What year did RID change its name, and why?
Many of the participants who were at the original workshop felt that it was time to formalize interpreting as a profession an. So after a name change to RID they were incorporated in 1972
CPC Tenet 1.0
Interpreters adhere to standards of CONFIDENTIAL communication
Tenet 1.0 Guiding Principle
"Interpreters hold position of trust in their role as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and is essential to protecting all involved."
CPC Tenet 2.0
Interpreters possess the PROFFESSIONAL skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
Tenet 2.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession of interpreting as well as in the American Deaf community. Interpreters accept assignments using discretion with regard to skill, communication mode, setting, consumer needs. Terps possess knowledge of American Deaf culture and deafness-related resources.
CPC Tenet 3.0
Interpreters CONDUCT themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation
Tenet 3.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. They avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
CPC Tenet 4.0
Interpreters demonstrate RESPECT FOR CONSUMERS.
Tenet 4.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters an interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
CPC Tenet 5.0
Interpreters demonstrate RESPECT FOR COLLEAGUES, INTERNS AND STUDENTS within the profession.
Tenet 5.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to a colleague reflects upon the profession in general.
CPC Tenet 6.0
Interpreters maintain ethical BUSINESS PRACTICES.
Tenet 6.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise. Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
CPC Tenet 7.0
Tenet 7.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreting competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
The scientific study of a language system
Sentence Structure/the study of the way in which sentences are constructed/how sentences are put together
Meaning/the study of the relationship between signs and symbols and what they represent, the meaning of signs and symbols in a language.
Word Formation/the study of how a language uses smaller units to build larger units
Sound production/transmission, how they are articulated and perceived.
Sound Patterns/rules
Prosody (in english)
The rhythm of speech with pauses and phraseology, as well as certain auditory intonation patterns.
Does ASL or English use passive voice often?
English! ASL tends to use a lot of active voice.
Noun/Verb Modifiers describes:
-the relationship of a person/place/thing;
-what a person/place/thing looks like;
-how a person/place/thing moves.
In English, the relationship of a person/place/thing to another person/place/thing is spoken how?
With prepositions and prepositional phrases
In ASL, the relationship of a person/place/thing to another person/place/thing is conveyed how?
With the use of Classifiers and Directional Verbs
How do ASL and English differ in the way they describe a person/place/thing?
English tends to use vocal intonation and spoken adjectives.
-ASL uses a combination of signed adjectives as well as a special set of classifiers called SASSes (size and shape classifiers)
Sentences (linguistic definitino)
made up of combined clauses that are combined morphemes
Pragmatic use of language
the way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterances within the given context.
Equivocal Language
the deliberate use of words, signs or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way in order to mislead someone.

(ex. telling a friend that her new hair cut "It's really different!") avoiding real answer
Euphemistic language
the use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt descriptive ones.

(ex. "He has gone to a better place" oppose to saying "He died")
What are the different types of "Powerless forms of language"?
Hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, polite forms, tag questions and "up talk", disclaimers.
when a part of the segment of a sign changes place.
-(ex. DEAF)
Rules that vary from language to language
symbols made up of discreet, meaningless parts
combined phonemes, formed into meaningful parts
What is a phoneme in English? Examples?
different sounds that speakers make that are part of the language, but have no meaning.
"d", "a"
What aspect of ASL would be considered a phoneme? Examples?
handshape, location, palm, orientation, movement, and non-manual markers
-for ex. a Hand out with palm down (has no meaning)
Explain and give an example of what a morpheme is in English.
words and other units that have meaning
-fr example the affix "s"
-"s" is a phoneme, but when you add it to "car" then "cars" is a morpheme because it changed the meaning of the word
Explain and give an example of what a morpheme looks like in ASL.
individual signs as well as other features such as numeral incorporation that can modify the meaning of a basic sign.
ex. "Hand out with palm down" has no meaning and "CL:3" doesn't have meaning by itself either, but if we were to sign CL:3 underneath the palm, then the sign becomes GARAGE and is now amorpheme
Relay Interpreting
When an interpreter relies on the interpreted message of another interpreter, like with a CDI or in multi-lingual teams
What are factors that affect the interpreting process?
interpersonal skills, interpreters as "human beings", public speaking, cross-cultural communication, advocacy
What are some examples of when situational factors make cultural adjustments NOT necessary?
Parallelism, deaf culture identity, degree of biculturism
the transaction is the same in both cultures
Another term for "lag time"
Minimal Language Skills
Lexical category: Major
words/signs functioning as nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs
Lexical category: Minor
determiners, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns
When was the original Code of Ethics established and what was its tone?
It established in 1964 but was very religious influenced because the "professionals" at the time were really volunteering alot
When did the first revision to the Code of ethics happen and what was included?
In 1965 the Code of Ethics was changed completely. It had 12 articles and imposed confidentiality for the first time.
In the CPC "Function of the Guiding Principles" what are the obligations of every interpreter and the driving force behind those guiding principles.
It is the obligation of every interpreter to
1.exercise judgement
2.employ critical thinking
3.reflect on past actions
The driving force behind those principles is the notion that the interpreter will do no harm.
Purpose of the CPC
1. establish framework for appropriate behavior
2. protects interpreters and defends all participants' rights who are involved
3. Provides guidelines and clarification of the role
4. allows for consistence within in the field, supporting predictability of professional behavior
What are the laws that supersede the CPC?
ALL local, state and federal laws supersedes the code. This includes IDEA, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, and ADA
In what category does the interpreter fall under in the IDEA?
Interpreters are under "Related service providers", which makes them an active part of the consumers IEP. Federal government mandates that Interpreters are involved in the education plan of deaf students.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act provides what services?
After a student becomes 22, they no longer qualify for services under IDEA so 504 becomes responsible for establishing that the needs for services are still there (ex. job training, or college applications, etc.) and then providing them with those services.
Entitlement vs. Eligibility
IDEA requires by law that services be provided. So until the age of 22 consumers are entitled to these services. Section 504 is no longer required to provide services but CAN depending on wether or not the consumer is eligible.
"the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior tat depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations..."
"a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society
study of social and personal space
study of the way something is said, including intonation, speech rate, use of silence, etc.
study of body motions such as gestures, eye gaze, facial expression
Each culture has its own set which influences kinesics, paralinguistics, and proxemics.
Low context culture
low dependence on context therefore less sub-textual information needs to be explained to be understood
High context cultures
high dependence on context and if you do not have the information you may not understand conversations
What are 3 things a terp should know how to handle when in various environments of deaf culture?
1. Introductions
2. Exits
3. Interruptions
The majority of interpreting is done in what register?
Role of Mediator
Someone in "constant control of the mediation session to ensure that it stays focused."
Why is Interpreter in the role of a mediator difficult?
-power issues
-taking over,
-influencing other parties due to our cultural perspectives
Perceived allegiace
Alliance with consumer through cultural/language/family background. Spoken language interpreters often have an inherint trust because of this, but sign language interpreters will never have the inherint trust
What are 5 major aspects when it comes to Ethics?
Trust, Being discreet, accuracy, proficiency, and the ability to be impartial
What are some examples of possible unintentional audism within RID?
-Testing, language use at conferences, passing of EIPA
Helper Philosophy
Interpreter as a care-taker. First philosophy of RID, back in 1964
Machine (Conduit) Philosophy
Interpreters began to approach their work in a strict rigid manner, denying that their presence had impact on the dynamic of the situation. Came after trying to get change the helper philosophy mindset
Communication Facilitation Philosphy
Shift towards this in the 70s because interpreters started to realize the importance of language and the environmental settings that were involved in situations. They begun being more mindful of visual noise and started to manage the environmental factors of the interpretation also
Bi-lingual/Bi-cultural Philosophy of Interpretation
Probably most common in the field now.
Names of People with proccess of interpreting models
kitano, pradis, seleskovitch, moser-mercer, ingram, gerver
When did RID begin evaluation of interpreters?
Abstract Classifiers
Classifiers that are smaller than life sized
Abstract Language
Lacking in specificity (I have to clean the house today)
Adventitous Deafness
Deafness that occurs after birth
emotions or feelings
L1 or native language
Having negative and positive feelings about being member of a minority group.
A visual-gestural language that has facial grammar, physical affect, linguistic and spatial info, signs with fingerspelling are included.
Anglicized ASL
English and ASL sign blends (More ASL than English)
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada.
Attitude based on the pathological view of deafness. Results in negative stigma towards Deaf. Judges, labels and limits individuals based on if they can hear or speak.
Knowing 2 cultures and developed socially appropriate behaviors fitting both cultures. Ability to shift from both cultures with socially appropriate behavior
BI-BI Interpreter Philosophy
Interpreting philosphy based on belief that effective interpreting must include cultural and linguistic mediation to accomplish speaker goals and keep dynamic equivalence. Important to remember Deaf people are members of an oppressed minority. Accepting of Deaf culture.
bi-bi Educational Philosphy
ASL in instructional language for all subjects except english. Goal is to develop competency in ASL and English. Based on the idea of Deaf Culture. Students must study ASL, Deaf Culture, Deaf Heritage, and Deaf Studies.
L2 or ones second language
AVLIC Cert of Interpretation
A set of functional signs in ASL. Some are iconic (look like objects) and others are arbitrary (deeper meaning- not necessarily object image) Cannot be used until noun is signed. CL convey noun-noun relationships, noun movement, and noun description.
Cloze Skills
Ability to mentally "fill in the blanks" when part of an utterance is not clear or the receiver does not understand a term or phrase. AKA "Closure".
Code Switching
Consciously or unconsciously going between ASL and English-like signing.
Communication Dynamic
Study of patterns and word formation and structure.
Study of sound pattern
ASL Phoneme
5 parameters of a sign, Hand shape, location, movement, palm orientation and Non-manual markers.
How a language is used and shaped by society or culture.
Set of words by an individual or group
Free Morphemes
Words/Signs that have meaning by themselves
Body language/gestures, facial expressions or eye gaze
An instance of language, the message
Bound Morpheme
Morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme
the scientific study of a language system
meaningful arrangement of words, sentence structure
sound production/transmission
Ambiguous Language
when a language can be understood in several ways
study of a language and its rhythm
Lord's prayer, National Anthem
Church, class lecture
Doctors office, counseling, lawyers office
Neighbors, students or co-workers
Friends, spouse or family
ASL relationships are shown by
The study of speech sounds; how sounds are articulated and perceived.
The study of the sound system; how sounds can and cannot be combined and in which sequences
The study of the smallest meaningful units of a language and the way in which these form words
The study of how sentences are constructed/related to each other. Independent of semantic meaning
The study of language meaning; how words and sentences relate to the objects/concepts to which they refer.
How the meaning of utterances depends on context (time, place, social relationship between speaker/listener, assumptions about listener)
Parameters (ASL)
5 basic parts of a sign:
1) hand shape
2) movement
3) location
4) palm orientation
5) non manual markers
The smallest unit that does not have meaning in a signed language, but which indicates or signals a change of a larger unit.
Words that look similar and have the same origin in two languages.
Linguistics of Visual English (LOVE)
A manual code for English which tries to achieve a 1 to 1 correspondence between English, syllables or affix (BE+HIND vs. BEHIND or TO+DAY vs. TODAY)
A-Language (L1)
The language in which you are most fluent and are capable of discussing a variety of topics for numerous purposes. Native Language
B-Language (L2)
Second language. One acquired by living in a country where that language is spoken by interacting frequently with people using that language, or by studying it formally
Language you may understand most of what is expressed, but have difficulty responding.
Cultural & Linguistic Mediation
Interpreting in such a way that information has equivalent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages and cultural schema; requires cultural expansions and reductions.
Helper Philosophical Frame
- Views Deaf people as handicapped and incapable of understanding the world around them.
- Interpreters are care givers.
- Overly involved with clients, moving out of interpreter role to advise, direct, teach or cajole.
- Deaf culture as aberrant and views ASL as poor English, reflective of limited education or mental abilities
Communication Facilitation Philosophy
- Views Deaf as seeking inclusion into mainstream
- English as superior to ASL, but ASL is useful communication mode for less educated/intelligent.
- Aware of importance of placement, facilitates visual intake, lighting, indicating who is speaking and absence of visual noise.
- Emphasis on interpreters appearance
Bilingual-Bi Cultural Philosophy (BI-BI)
- Deaf as oppressed minority, accepts ASL & Deaf culture.
- Interpreter as equalizing communication and empowering Deaf and hearing persons involved
- Sensitive to physical communication and dynamics
- Provides linguistic and cultural equivalents, interprets implicit information and fosters comprehension
Conduit/Machine Philosophy
- Interpreters assume no responsibility for interaction or communication taking place between clients
- Generally viewed as rigid or inflexible.
- Views Deaf as needing to learn to care for themselves.
- English is only acceptable form of communication
- Confuses quantity with quality of communication
Refers to the transition of a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language
The process of transmitting from a form of English-like signing to spoken English. No change in language, simply mode of delivery.
The process of changing a message from one language to another, conveying all essential elements of meaning and maintaining dynamic equivalence; requires complex thinking and analytical strategies.
Object Verb Agreement
Linguistic feature found in ASL, but not English.
1) Frozen
2) Formal
3) Consultative
4) Casual
5) Intimate
A set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own language, values, rules of behavior and traditions.
Process of interpreting (5 Steps)
1) Take in source language
2) Identify deep structure meaning
3) Apply contextual/schema screen
4) Formulate/rehearse target language
5) Produce interpretation
Cokely's Interpreting Process Model
Message Reception
Preliminary Processing
Short Term Message Reception
Semantic Intent Realized
Semantic Equivalence Determined
Syntactic Message Formulation
Message Production
Colonomos' Interpreting Process Model
Source Frame (R1)
Target Switch (R2) [Analyze and Formulate]
Constructing Meaning
Speaker Variables
Contextual Factors
Discourse Analysis
The act of distinguishing the component parts of the message in order to understand the whole of the message
10 Steps of Discourse Analysis
1) Prediction
2) View and Recall
3) Content Mapping
4) Salient Language Features of Source Language
5) Abstraction
6) Retell in Source Language
7) Salient Language Features of Target Language
8) Visualization Mapping
9) Retell in Target Language
10) Interpretation
10 C's of Effective Target Texts
1) Channeled Appropriately
2) Clearly Articulated
3) Comfortably Paced
4) Complete Grammatically (within the rules of the target language)
5) Conceptually accurate and appropriate in vocabulary choices.
6) Cohesively Organized
7) Confidently Presented
8) Culturally adjusted for idiomatic language use
9) Composed with equivalent affect
10) Correct information presented.
PL 93-112 - The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Defines "handicapped individuals" and their rights. Mandates fully accessible rehabilitation services to members of all disability groups. This means that agencies and institutions receiving federal funds must be accessible and must provide sign language interpreters and other forms of access accommodation. ie. post secondary institutions, business, criminal legal proceedings, medical settings, etc.
PL 93-112 - The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - Important Sections
Section 501 - Employment practices of the federal government
Section 503 - Federal contractors
Section 504 - Recipients of federal assistance.
PL 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act
- Requires that disabled children be educated in the "least restrictive environment".
- Lead to widespread mainstreaming has resulted in a proliferation of interpreting jobs within elementary and secondary schools
PL 89-333 - The Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Identifies sign language interpreting as a service for Deaf clients of vocational rehabilitation for the first time. Marks the beginning of paid interpreting opportunities for Sign Language Interpreters in the US.
PL 95-539 - The Court Interpreters Act of 1978
Mandates the use of only certified interpreters when non-English speaking litigants are involved.
PL 95-602 - Rehabilitation Amendments of 1978
Section 101 - mandates the use of personnel trained in the use of client's native language or mode of communication.
Section 304 - provides money that currently funds 12 federal interpreter education centers.
Americans with Disabilities Act
- Applies the concept of "equal access" to the private business sector.
- Requires businesses of a certain minimum size to provide interpreters to Deaf employees, TTY's etc.
Interactive and dynamic process in which communicators simultaneously send and receive multiple overlapping messages
Anything that distracts participants from their communication
External Noise
Flickering Lights, Coughing, Mics Squeal
Physiological Noise
Biological factors like illness
Psychological Noise
Internal Stress (In our heads)
Pragmatic Rules
Help determine meaning within a given context
Equivocal language
Deliberate use of words that can be interpreted in more than one way "That new shirt is... different"
Euphemistic language
Socially acceptable terms in place of blunt words "Gone to a better place"
Abstract Language
Degrees of imprecision. The less specific, the more abstract (camping, jewelry)
Linguistic Register
Degree of formality in a message construction
Frozen Register
A text that is the same each time it is rendered. Archaic meaning found in ritual not words. More importance on actions.
Frozen Setting
Weddings, Funerals, Graduations, Anthems, Prayers
More Aspects of Frozen register
NO turn taking, clearly enunciated, audience preparation. Large signing space. GOALS - Unite, evoke reverence, and deliver proclamation
Formal Register
Register used when one speaker addresses a large group. No informal or spontaneous turn taking (limited/controlled). Slower rate, clear diction, well articulated. Enlarged signing space so all can see/hear.
Formal Register Continued part 1
Settings: ceremonies, speeches, churches, meetings. Register carries psychological distance. Impersonal topics and formal vocabulary.
Formal Register Continued part 2
Formal sentence structure is both compound and complex. Common to contain Frozen texts, passive voice, and rhetorical questions. May contain informal register or consultative register to "lighten the mood"
Consultative Register
Register where one individual has expert status or enhanced command of a topic yet interacts with audience/receiver. Complete compound sentence structure that contains jargon. Unwritten turn-taking rules depend on personal style though there is a psychological separation due to expert status.
Consultative Register Part 1
Settings: Small group, interactions, interviews, hospitals. Rate of speech depends on physical settings and personality. Tend to be more conversational. Less physical distance so reduced signing space. Goals: teach, inform, instruct.
Informal/Casual Register
Register used by those with equal status. Settings often truncated resulting in fragments. Frequent grammatical errors and slang terms. Often personal topics.
Informal Register Part 1
Fluid turn-taking. Interruptions are acceptable. Corrections can be made immediately. Close physical distance and touch is acceptable. Rapid rate of speaking with less precision. Significantly reduced signing space. Goals: tease, share, inquire
Intimate Register
Register between individuals who have a shared history or experiential base influencing dynamics. topics may include "inside jokes".
Intimate Register Continued
Rapid turn-taking that is frequently incomplete. Absence of jargon, able to "read each other's mind". Some lexicon has personal meaning. Topics are mainly personal
Self Help for the Hard of Hearing
"Hearing Impaired"
Offensive and negative term
American Sign Language ASL
Naturally occurring visual gestural language that adheres to linguistic rules. Incorporates facial grammatical markers, physical affect markers, spatial linguistic information, finger-spelling of signed lexicon, and is a distinct language not based on English.
Sign Supported Speech
Sign Supported Speech
Represents manual form of English (Manually coded English)
Rochester Method
Each word is fingerspelled except for "and"
"Seeing Essential English" - 1996 by David Anthony. Signs for each word root/syllable. No consideration for conceptual accuracy. follows English word/grammar order. Offers Deaf opportunity to learn English in a visual form.
"Signing Exact English" by Gustason, Zawalkow, and Pfetzing. English signed in same manner as spoken English. Believes a sign should have only one English equivalent and used for all sentences regardless of meaning. Results in inappropriate conceptual message. Often uses stylized handshapes.
"2 out of 3 Rule" for SEE2
Sound, Meaning, and Spelling. If two of the three are present then it is acceptable.
"Signed English" - 14 sign markers added to represent English. Signs were invented for English words. Follows English sentence structure rather than ASL
"Conceptually Accurate Signed English" - Use of signs that are selected based on the meaning of the idea being conveyed. Meaning has primary importance and signs show concept. Has English word order and inaudible mouthing of words.
Home Signs
System of pantomimes, gestures, and manual signals.
Minimal Language Competency (socially acceptable)
Minimal Language Skills (socially acceptable)
Low Verbal
Obsolete/negative term for minimal language skills
"High Visual Orientation" - No first language
Oral Communication
Speech reading is a skill involving deciphering lip and mouth movements, clarifying gestures and contextual clues for meaning.
Cued Speech
8 Hand-shapes for consonants and 4 positions near face for vowels. Every syllable is visible.
Usher's Syndrome Type 1
Born with hearing loss/balance problems, learn sign language, and then becomes blind
Ushers Syndrome Type 2
Mild hearing loss, learn speech communication before going blind
Communication with Deaf-Blind
1. Sign language at close distance
2. Tactile - Singing in hands
3. Finger-spelling on palsm
Code-Switching/Code Mixing
Changing of register from English based signs to ASL, Movement from ASL to English signs due to oppression
Lexical Borrowing
Taking signs from another location or country's sign language and using it
Perceptual framework based upon personal experience and cultural framework
Characteristics in forming schema
1. Physical - appearance based
2. Roles - Social positions
3. Interactions - Behavior/Personality
4. Psychological - Personal assessment
5. Memberships - Affiliations and groups
Faulty thinking leading to negative judgement, destructive behavior, racism, sexism, and agism
Unjust or excessive exercise of power and position that hurts others
Attitude causing negative stigma toward anyone unable to hear
Systematic exclusion of minority groups, removing a group's voice
Pathological View of Deaf People
Deaf are viewed as disabled, imperfect, and in need of fixing
Cultural view of Deaf People
Normal capable human beings encountering life in a different acceptable way
Benefactors/Oppressive Majority
Have a pejorative view that difference is bad. Reciprocity of perspectives ("fix it mentality of others wanting to be like me")
Know it all feeling, desire to care, coddle, and take care of
Institutionalized Oppression
"Conditioning" people to what is normal
Mixed feelings about being a minority
Horizontal Violence
Frustration towards majority is taken out on own members of an oppressed group.
Crab Theory
Tear down those who gain success or stand out
DPN Deaf President Now
1988 Gallaudet University
Vicarious Trauma
Trauma resulting from observing another's traumatic experience. Interpreter's may experience.
One who speaks out on issues on behalf of others. Hearing people are the "experts" and take on a leadership role resulting in minority oppression.
One who supports Deaf individuals in their own struggle for liberation
Book "The Interpreter: Machine, Advocate, or Ally?"
Written by Baker Shenk
Minority members use humor to persevere in the face of discrimination
Can Interpreters be Neutral?
Interpreter Neutrality is a MYTH
A-Language or L1
Language in which you are most fluent and capable of discussing topics
B-Language or L2
Refers to ones 2nd language learned
Choppy third language learned. Know very few words.
Taking the source language, identifying the meaning and intent, then using cultural transition, produce message in target language
Source Language
Language in which the original message in conveyed
Target Language
The language in which the original message in expressed by the interpreter
Processing Time
Time used to analyze source language utterance and produce it in the target language
Dynamic Equivalence
Maintaining speaker's intended interaction and impact on the audience. Both hearing and Deaf audiences have the speaker's goals and involvement the same.
Taking a source language message, identifying the meaning and intent, and expressing the message in a different form of the SAME language. (English to Signed English)
Changing the message from Frozen form of one language to Frozen from in another
Sight Translation
Changing a message from the Frozen form of one language into another signed or spoken language.
Channel through which a message is expressed. Specifically aural/oral or visual/gestural.
One who supports communication between individuals who have different languages.
Simultaneous Form
Process of interpreting into the target language at the same time the source language is being delivered. Short processing time. Formal settings
Consecutive Form
Interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more IDEAS in a source language. This is the most accurate form of interpreting. Normally used for one on one or small group settings.
One-on-One Setting
Linguistic Range is informal or consultative. Most accurate form is consecutive interpreting.
Helper Philosophy
Deaf are handicap and incapable of understanding. The interpreter's purpose is to help and take care of the Deaf. This mindset causes interpreters to be overly involved and see ASL as improper English
"Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf" - Established in 1964 (1st professional association of ASL interpreters)
Code of Ethics
8 principles designed to guide decisions made by interpreters in the field. Made in response to Helper role. Before there was an imbalance of power.
Machine/Conduit Philosophy
Robot-like role. Assume no responsibility for communication dynamics. Rigid and inflexible rules. View Deaf as needing to care always for themselves alone. Tend to be English only modality and view ASL as illegitimate. Confuses quantity of signs with quality. View themselves as a "verbatim" telephone wire.
Communication Facilitator Philosophy
View Deaf as handicap group seeking inclusion. Sees English as superior to ASL with ASL being for uneducated. However, more aware of importance of lighting, background, and visual noise. Emphasize change on appearance to have a "professional look." Still focus on quantity of signs over quality. Lack of equal access for the Deaf.
Bilingual-Bicultural Philosophy
Interpreters are sensitive to physical communication dynamics, indicate who is speaking, place themselves appropriately. Aware of linguistic and cultural differences. Maintain dynamic equivalence, not word for word. This is the most appropriate philosophy to date (2015)
Dynamic Equivalence
Way people react or engage to a message in conversation. Goal is to have same dynamic response.
Cultural/Linguistic Mediation
Linguistic Expansion/Reduction and Cultural Expansion/Reduction - Require consecutive interpreting. (Make sure not to slip into helper philosophy)
Linguistic Expansion
Interpret implicit and explicit information
Cultural Expansion
Provide contextual information needed to help understanding
Linguistic/Cultural reduction
Reducing volume of words or details without affecting meaning
Ethical Decision Making
Interpreters are NOT machines, however we do have an inherent power. We need to respect consumer's choice of modality and linguistic/cultural preference. We must understand the history of their oppression.
Rhythm of speech and pauses
Interpreter's first step...
Deriving meaning and dropping source language
Several parts or possible aspects of something
When a sign is repeated for clarity or emphasis
Noun Listing
English - Assign items a category
ASL- Give a list of items followed by "et cetera"
Couching/Nesting Expansion
Provide information in an introductory "set up" to ensure proper schema. (Ex. English word "sewer" - ASL Couching "YOU KNOW TOILET PIPES GO TO...")
ASL is a TOPIC prone language
Whatever is the focus comes first with comments following (Topic-Comment)
Non-Manual-Markers (Failure to express NMMs results in confusion)
Voice of an utterance indicates relation of subject to the verb. English - Passive voice ASL - Active voice. Passive English forms are transformed into active ASL voice
Ambiguous Interpreting
Interpreters are responsible to keep interpretation vague if speaker intended it
ASL handshapes that show relationship of one noun to another
Abstract Classifier
Less iconic or reduced proportion in size
Size and Shape Specifiers Classifiers - used to describe nouns that one cannot duplicate on paper in English.
Relationships of one noun to another
ASL- Classifiers
English - Prepositions
English - 2 systems (Ordinal "1st, 2nd" and Cardinal "quantity") Often number neutral (we, us, them)
ASL- 27 number systems. Often number specific (3 of us, 5 of us)
Valli and Lucas 1992
Wrote "Language Facets in Deaf Community"
Termed Code Mixing/Contact Signing - frequent contact between ASL and English
Famous Interpreting Models to follow...
Models are unable to illustrate simultaneity and process of multitasking
Gerver 1976
Simultaneous Interpreting
Ingram 1977
Simultaneous Interpreting
Moser-Mercer 1978
Process models in simultaneous interpreting
Seleskovitch 1978
"Triangular model of Interpreting"
1. Speaker expresses language
2. Interpreter reduces words to verbal sense (Transcoding)
3. Listener listens in language 2
Colonomos 1980, 83-84, 87
"Mental Activity"
1. Concentrate - Understand
2. Represent - Conceptualize "strip source language message"
3. Plan - Organize concepts and feelings into target language
Cokely 1985, 1992
Interpretation errors or "miscues"
Omissions - Information that did not make it into the interpretation
Additions - Interpretation contains personal input
Substitutions - Skews meaning by making message more/less than it was
Intrusions - Source language form or syntax skews target language
Anomalies - Meaningless interpretation
Kitano 1993
"Dialogue Interpreting"
Speech to speech automatic translation system (DMDIALOG is designed to handle simple telephone conversations)
"Massively Parallel" system
Pradis 1994
Simultaneous Interpreting
Gish Model 1987
"Organization of Data"
Speaker's goal - theme- objectives- units of support - details
5 steps of Interpreting Process
1. Take in source language
2. Identify deep structural meaning
3. Apply contextual/schema screen
4. Formulate target language utterance
5. Produce interpretation
"Filling in the blanks" of missed information. Helpful to have Bi-lingual Bi-cultural competence
Reciprocal Signs
Indication one is understanding or confused. "Head nod/shake, eye gaze"
Richard Paul
"Critical Thinking" - critically analyze texts
Goal of Interpreting
Accurately identify deep structural meaning in the context of the participants personal schemas, perspectives, and philosophy
Cohort Groups
Group of people who share similar experiences or historical and social conditions.
Contextual Factors
Interpreters should be able to predict situations and appropriately prepare for what information is coming next
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
Ball State University Indiana - June 14, 1964
-1st RID meeting to discuss interpreter demand and list of qualified interpreters
-Prominent Members were: Edgar Lowell and Ralph Hoag who proposed the idea of RID
Founders of RID were primarily
Deaf family members, CODAs, Deaf Teachers, and Clergy
Lillian Beard
Founding member of RID who wished to "rid the world of barriers"
Interpreters "for the deaf"?
Today practitioners refer to themselves as "sign language" interpreters rather than the term interpreters "for the Deaf"
Goal of RID
Promote the profession of interpreting and transliterating American Sign language and English
Mission of RID
Provide international, national, regional, state, and local forums and an organizational structure for the continued growth and development of the profession of interpretation and transliterating of ASL and English.
RID is committed to...
To increasing the number of interpreters, ensuring they are qualified to practice, and that they practice in accordance to professional standards
RID membership categories
1. Certified - Individuals who hold certification
2. Associate - Working interpreters not yet certified
3. Supporting - supporting role but not interpreters
4. Student - Individuals enrolled in a full time ITP
5. Organizational - Agencies or companies who support RID
RID Board
Elected every two years. One affiliate chapter per state generally.
November 1979
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada (AVLIC)
- Broader name than RID, 9 members every two years
-Categories are: Active, Supporting, and Chapter
RID Interpreter Evaluation
Began in 1972
- Live interview and 2 interpreting samples
- All certificates expired 5 years later unless:
1. Took a second evaluation
2. Successfully completed a specialist certificate
(1972) Interview above 75% but both performances below 75%
- Interpreting Certificate.Transliteration (IC or TC)
(1972) 75% or higher on both interview and performance
Comprehensive skills Certificate (CSC)
- Considered to be fully certified
(1972) Interview 75% but only one performance above a 60%
- Interpreting Certificate.Transliteration (IC or TC)
(1972) If Deaf individuals received a 75% or higher
Reverse Skills Certificate (RSC)
- Considered to be fully certified
RID Interpreter Evaluation Revised in 1989 - Written Test
Written test and videotaped skills demonstration
- 150 multiple choice questions. (98 must be correct)
RID Interpreter Evaluation Revised in 1989 - Performance Test
1. Sign to Voice
2. Voice to Sign
3. Interactive Segment of Interpreting or Transliterating involving Deaf/hearing clients
(1989) Interpreting Skill Success
Certificate of Interpreting (CI)
(1989) Transliterating Skill Success
Certificate of Transliterating (CT)
(1989) Fully certified
Have both the CI and CT
Oral Transliteration Testing (1978-1983)
Performance included:
1. Paraphrasing and Transliterating a spoken message
2. Ability to read lips of a Deaf or hearing person
Oral Testing (1978-1983) 75% or higher on exam
Receive the Oral Interpreter Certificate:Comprehensive (OIC:C)
Oral Testing (1978-1983) If 75% on interview but below 75% on skills:
Oral Interpreter Certificate - Spoken to visible (OIC:S)
Visible and Oral Interpreter Certificate: Visible to Spoken (OIC:VS)
Specialist Certificates
Specialist Certificate: Legal
Specialist Certificate: Performing Arts
Masters Comprehensive Skills Certificate
Current Generalist Certification
Certified Deaf Interpreter - replaced the RSC and CDI:P in 2003
National Interpreter Certification (2001-Present)
National Association of the Deaf
NIC Written Exam
- 3 hours 150 questions, scaled score of 500 or better
If pass NIC Written Exam
"Candidate for certification" must complete performance exam within 5 years
NIC Performance Exam
Two parts: Professionalism Interview and Skills Exam
- 5 signed ethical questions with a response in sign language
- Answer graded on content not skill
NIC Performance Exam Skills Exam
5 interpreting scenarios either voice to sign or sign to voice
3 levels of NIC certification
1. NIC Professional - Professional level ethics and interpreting skills.
2. NIC Advanced - Professional ethical level and advanced skills
3. NIC Masters - Advanced ethical level and skill
NIC Changes
2008 - All hearing applicants must have an AA degree
2012 - All hearing must have a bachelors degree while Deaf must have an AA
2016 - All applicants must have a bachelors degree
Oral Transliteration Certificate Exam (OTC)
1. Convey spoken English to someone who reads speech
2. Voicing over Deaf oral individuals
3. Facilitate interactive setting

Exam is 125 multiple choice questions and score must be above 89%
Specialist Certificate: Legal (SC:L) Present day requirements
1. NIC, Bachelors degree, 5 years experience, 50 hours of legal training
- Must meet requirements above to take written/performance exam
Specialist Certificate: Legal (SC:L) Present day examination
Written exam - 100 questions with score of 77%
Performance exam:
1. Miranda Warning
2. Courtroom Scene (criminal trial)
3. Process to deem if interpreter is qualified
4. Jury instructions
AVLIC Certification
Canadian Evaluation System CES 1990 but revised in 2004
Education Interpreter Performance Assessment EIPA
Educational interpreter test looks at transliteration and interpretation including range of English systems.
- EIPA level 3 is considered certified though some states are upping the level
Paris Peace Conference 1919 (WW1)
Historic use of Interpreters
1931 League of Nations Assembly
First use of simultaneous interpreting done through headphones
William Stokoe
Wrote "A Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles"
- This book led to formal recognition of ASL as a rule governed language
1965: PL 98-333
"Vocational Rehabilitation Act"
- Sign Language interpreters required for Deaf clients of vocational rehab
- marked beginning of paid interpreting opportunities in the US
1973: PL 93-112
"Rehab Act" Section 501, 503-504
- Defines handicapped individuals and their rights
- Mandates fully accessible rehabilitation service to all disabled groups
- Agencies receiving federal funding must be accessible for the disabled
- Institutions of the government have to provide interpreters and accomodations
1975: PL 94-142
"Education for all Handicapped Children Act"
- Require handicapped children to be educated in least restrictive environment
- Mainstreaming of disabled children in public schools
- Created many interpreting jobs in schools
1978: PL 95-539
"The Court of Interpreters Act"
- Mandates use of only certified interpreters when non-English speaking litigants are involved in federal court
1978: PL 95-602
"Rehabilitation Amendments"
- Section 101 mandates the use of personnel trained in the use of client's native tongue or communication mode.
- Section 204 provides money that funds 12 federal interpreter education centers.
1991 ADA
"Americans with Disabilities Act"
- Applies concept of equal access to private businesses
- ADA requires businesses of a certain minimum size to provide interpreters for Deaf employees
Professionals should...
Hold client's interests paramount (professing values) higher than profit based markets
Behavioral standards that define what is judged appropriate/inappropriate or right/wrong
Interpreters need...
Code of Ethics and a Strong Moral/Ethical judgement
NAD-RID Code of Professional Conduct (2005)
1. Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication.

2. Interpreters possess the professional skills and
knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.

3. Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner
appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.

4. Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.

5. Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.

6. Interpreters maintain Ethical business practices.

7. Interpreters engage in professional development.
Metaethical Principle
Interpreters do no harm but empower others by vesting control into the hands of the consumer.
-Accept only assignments for which we are qualified/able to do.
- Sensitive to cross cultural communication dynamics
- Confidential to build trust
- Respect others opinions
Knowing one's limits and to be linguistically capable, flexible to adjust, cognizant of task, committed to further developing skill for the client
Ethical Decision Steps
1. List options
2. Identify consequences
3. Collect/Review Facts
4. Review consequences
5. Review options
6. Rank options
7. Act and review action taken later
8. Record for reference
Interpreting in an Educational Setting
-Workers placement may be mobile and in variety
- More responsibility for class of younger students
- If teacher lectures up front, interpreter should sit to the side and to the front of the teacher
Authentic Team Interpreting
There is continuous support. Don't switch out and leave
Small 1 on 1 Meetings
Interpreters should position themselves where they can be seen by the Deaf client as well as be heard by the hearing client
- remember to stay clear of equipment
1 on 1 Interviews with desk
Interpreter should set beside and slightly behind non-Deaf person
Working with a DI
Interpreters should not bypass the DI's interpretation and voice interpret for the Deaf client directly
Medical Interpreting Setting
Highly mobile setting. Constant re-position to maintain visual communication and privacy.
- If doctor leaves so does the interpreter
- Stay with patient until fully anesthetized, lack of communication may be deadly.
- If patient is face down sit near patients head maintaining eye contact
Legal Interpreting Setting
Interpreter must "make do" with placement
- goal is to be beside main speaker
Rapid turn taking
Interpreters meeting as professionals to confer about legal interpreting does not constitute violation of confidentiality but is credible practice.
Have separate interpreters for client attorney interactions as it avoids contamination of interpreter (Court may need to import another interpreter)
Psychiatric Interpreting Setting
Shoud be performed only with a Deaf Interpreter or Advocate
-Brief sessions
Ask for Therapist's goals beforehand
Theatrical Interpreting Setting
Standing stationary off stage is least desirable.
If interpreters shadow the actors it provides close visual proximity
- Difficult if rapid turn taking
- Interpreters should attend practices to gain insight on character development and portraying personalities
Zone Method
By interpreting only sections of stage, characters lose consistency.
Best Theatrical Setting
Best to have Deaf actors and to voice interpret for them.
- Double Stage approach
Purpose of Theatrical Interpreting
Requires you to compliment performances and support authentic access for Deaf. Job is NOT to entertain.
Video Relay Interpreting
Situations where Deaf individuals are making telephone calls to non-deaf.
-Video Interpreters (VI)
Video Remote Interpreting
Provides an interpreter via video conferencing equipment who is able to see the Deaf client and hear the doctor
Team Interpreting Depends on 4 Factors
1. Length of assignment - typically longer than 50 minutes
2. Density or complexity of content
3. Size of room
4. Individuals who require tactileor close vision interpreting
Religious Interpreting Settings
No qualifications
Heavy use of formal and frozen register
Placement varies
Supervision is infrequent
Religious Interpreting Ethics
Conveying religious content that may be against one own's beliefs. (Atheists should not interpret for Christian service)
Educational Settings
Qualifications widely vary but preferably have certification.
- Pay should include prep time and breaks
- Deaf community has negative view of mainstreaming
Educational Interpreting Ethics
Broad role of responsibilities in classroom, there is a danger of becoming too familiar with students
Educational Interpreting role
Provide communication access which leads to independence, empowerment, and integration
"Call Out Fee"
Larger first hour fee with lessened fee for more hours.
- Idea coined by Cheryl Palmer who lost money based on hourly pay
Point for the Interpreter
Satisfaction in job well done and in seeing authentic empowerment and inclusion of Deaf and HH people
Repetitive Strain Injury
- warmup, exercise, break habits, watch working conditions
- 10 min break for every 50 minutes
- If assignment in longer than 2 hours have a team
Staff Interpreter
Full time working receiving benefits
Contract Interpreter
Working hourly for agency with no benefits
Self employed practitioner
part/full time woker
Claggett Statement 1984
Oppressed Deaf individuals in response to churches
National Associaltion of the DEaf
Code of Ethics/Professional Conduct
Other Interpreters
Conflict of Interests
Conflict of private interests and official responsibilities of the interpreter (Ex. Pro-life having to interpret an abortion)
Individuals part of interpreting situation either hearing or Deaf
Code of Ethics Rule #1
Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication
- Position of trust to protect all involved
- Exceptions include reporting abuse, threats, or subpoemas
Code of Ethics Rule #2
Interpreters possess professional skills and knowledge required for specific interpreting situations.
- Interpreters stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession and community
Code of Ethics Rule #3
Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the situation
- Present themselves appropriate in manner and appearance
-Avoid conflict interests
Code of Ethics Rule #4
Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers
- Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters and dynamic equivalence
Code of Ethics Rule #5
Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession
- Collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery f effective service
-Assist and encourage, resolve unethical behavior
Code of Ethics Rule #6
Interpreters maintain ethical business practices in a professional manner
Code of Ethics Rule #7
Interpreters engage in professional development
- Foster and maintain interpreting competence and the structure of the profession through ongoing development and skills
Stages of Moral Development
The complex whole including knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Culture and Communication
Both are inseperable
- Culture is the foundation of communication. when cultures vary, communication practices also vary
the study of social and personal space
Study of the way something is said like intonation, speech rate, and silence
Study of body motions such as gestures, eye gaze, and facial expressions
The underlying principles behind mannerisms. They knit arbitrary acts into larger patterns and provide standards by which conduct can be evaluated by members of a culture.
- Something that each culture has. Family and friends, ideas about nature, beliefs of people's roles, view of authority, beliefs of life.
Intonation (paralinguistics)
Tone determines the meaning of a word
Rate of Speech (paralinguistics)
Tempo of speech. Slow or fast
Volume (paralinguistics)
Soft or loud spoken
Silence (paralinguistics)
Has affect on meaning and reception
Intercultural Perspective
Since our inclination is not to see things from another's perspective and to judge people negatively who are different than us, we may do well to double check our initial reactions in intercultural situations.
Collectivist Culture
Emphasis on pooling resources, sharing of information, boundary between insiders and outsiders, loyalty and strong identification with the group.
- One must generally be born or grow up within that culture to qualify.
- Deaf culture is collectivist
Individualist Cultures
I can only depend on myself. Heavy emphasis on personal choice while group membership is flexible. Always take responsibility for one own's actions. We identify with a group not because we must but because of the benefits it offers.
Giving and taking from the collective pool of skills in the group, can be a feature of collectivist culture
Collectivist/Individualist Divide
Collectivists who interact with individualists are cautioned that the written word carries greater importance in individualistic culture. Individualists take great pride in their own accomplishments while collectivists take pride in what the group accomplishes
Strict view of time. (American Hearing culture) Focus on one thing or person at a time. One on one attention is wanted. Have everything planned out and our time is scheduled. This treatment of time is not universal
Relaxed view of time. (Deaf culture) People carry on several conversations at the same time. Strong desire to keep in touch. If interpreters leave without chatting this can be considered rude.
English Subject-Predicate Style
Subject followed by verb and object
ASL Topic-Comment
Topic gives background information and the context is needed to appreciate the new information or argument contained in the comment.
Hearing Americans - Facts and Numbers
Deaf Culture - Testimonials from other Deaf friends
Expansion Features
1. Contrasting Features - used for emphasis. State what it is as well as what it is not
2. Faceting - use of several synonyms to define subject
3. Reiteration - repeat same sign at beginning and end of sentence
4. Utilizing 3D space - more than one perspective
5. Explain with examples rather than defining
6. Couching/Nesting - Identify be description instead of labeling
7. Describe then Do - role shift to describe action
T/F Language can be separated from Culture
FALSE - Language cannot be easily separated from Culture
Bilingual Bicultural Approach
In the bilingual-bicultural program, it is advocated that children who are deaf be taught ASL as a first language, then be taught written and/or spoken English as a second language. Bilingual-bicultural programs emphasize that English and ASL are equal languages, and they work to help children develop age-appropriate levels of fluency in both languages. The bilingual-bicultural approach holds the belief that deaf children are visual learners as opposed to auditory learners. Therefore, classes should be conducted in a complete visual language