-Psychological and emotional effects of sport on the competitor (e.g., winning, losing, perceived competence, stress, anxiety).
-Ways in which thoughts and emotions influence sport performance.
-Particular characteristics of individuals who are drawn to exercise versus those who remain sedentary.
-Dealing with coaching concerns; how to best motivate athletes, develop team identify, and maintain optimal performance.
-Predicting future sport success (e.g., personality testing, skills tests, talent identification and talent development programs).
-Effectiveness of interventions on improving performance outcomes.
-Attempts to understand and, at times, alter the thoughts (i.e., cognition) and emotions of physical performers (e.g., primarily athletes, but also exercisers, rehabilitation patients, dancers, actors, musicians, the corporate sector).
-Providing athletes or exercisers with counseling to overcome certain thought processes, emotions, or behavioral tendencies.
-Helping participants deal with depression, chronic anxiety, irrational thinking, low self-esteem, relationship problems, and other psychopathological issues.
-Dealing with drug-taking (the use of drugs OR drug abuse) in sports.
-Examples: different types of drugs, causes and antecedents of drug-taking (drug abuse), interventions to prevent or overcome this behavior, including education on the effects of drugs)
-Describes the athlete's typical specific thoughts, emotions, and attitudes in specific types of situations (e.g., pre-game, post-game, under pressure, social settings).
-Examples: state anxiety, high self-control, resilience to stressful situations, assumes a specific role in certain settings, mood.
-Broad, encompassing (i.e., cross situational) types of thoughts, actions, or emotions toward others or situations.
-Examples: Optimism/pessimism, competitiveness, goal orientation, win orientation, coping style, commitment, learned helplessness or resourcefulness.
In favor of sport personality research (Pros):
1. Provides data about necessary sport traits.
2. Provides information about player selection, positioning, and psychological needs (talent ID).
3. Individuals who have strong ("highly desirable") scores can further develop the skills that explain those scores.
4. Research findings do indicate unique qualities of elite level athletes.
Sample Common characteristics of elite athletes across multiple studies: High levels of:
self-motivation, intrinsic motivation, self-determination, dominant, aggressiveness; need achievement, mental toughness, self-sufficient, effective coping skills, stimulus-seekers, strong leadership tendencies, "coachable," emotionally stable, self-confident,, more guilt proneness, attributional bias tendencies (i.e., take credit for success, but blame failure on external factors), tendencies, competitive, risk-taking,self-expectations, & fear of failure.
(1) comparative appraisal,
(2) perceived lack of ability, and
(3) low intrinsic motivation.
I. Comparative appraisal: A process in which children begin comparing themselves with others to determine their own relative status on motor ability;
Starts around ages 4 to 5 years;
Increases in importance through the elementary and adolescent years;
Child athletes increasingly compare themselves with the abilities of others more often at this time due to relatively little past experience on which to base accurate self-appraisal
II. Perceived lack of ability: The primary reason children drop out of sport is that they attribute failure (poor performance) to their lack of ability.
If the athlete is to maintain participation in sport, he or she needs the approval of significant others (the coach, teammates, friends, and parents).
The young player soon realizes that the approval of the coach is dependent upon effort. "If I try hard, the coach will like and accept me."
Therefore, trying hard becomes the main criterion of success and failure
III. Low intrinsic motivation: Perceptions of competence or incompetence are the most critical factors that influence performance and persistence.
The individual constantly strives to demonstrate high ability and minimize low ability. This is especially critical in youth sports.
Thus, in order to persist at a task, the young athlete must have feelings of competence or perceived success.
Parents' code of ethics:
1. I will encourage good sportsmanship by demonstrating positive support for all players, coaches, and officials at every game, practice, or other youth sports event.
2. I will place the physical and emotional well-being of my child ahead of my personal desire to win.
3. I will insist that my child play in a safe and healthy environment.
4. I will support coaches and officials working with my child, in order to encourage a positive and enjoyable experience for all.
5. I will do my best to make youth sports fun for my child.
6. I promise to help my child enjoy the youth sports experience by doing whatever I can, such as being a respectful fan, assisting with coaching, or providing transportation.
7. I will remember that the game is for youth, not for adults.
8. I will ask my child to treat other players, coaches, fans, and officials with respect, regardless of race, sex, creed, or abililty.
9. Finally, I will demand a sports environment for my child that is free of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco, and will refrain from their use at all youth sports events.