From DNA to Proteins (Chapter 15)
1. What are genes? What is the purpose of a gene?
2. What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
3. What occurs during transcription?
4. What is a promoter?
5. Which enzyme performs transcription?
6. List the highlights of the three stages of transcription:
7. If a sequence of DNA consists of GTAGTCGTCACC, what would be the sequence of an RNA transcript?
8. RNA Processing:
a. In which organisms does RNA processing take place?
b. What happens to the transcript RNA before it leaves the nucleus?
c. What is the advantage of the 5' cap and poly A tail?
d. Distinguish between exons and introns.
e. What is the function of the spliceosome? What happens in alternative splicing and why?
9. What is the role of each of the following types of RNA: rRNA, mRNA, tRNA?
10. What is the genetic code and why is said to be universal?
11. What are triplets? codons? Anticodons?
12. What occurs during translation?
13. Identify and briefly describe the steps of translation:
14. Using the genetic code, identify what amino acids would be encoded by an mRNA containing the sequence AUGGGCUGCUAA. Identify codons, anticodons, and amino acid sequence.
15. What are gene mutations? How may they affect protein synthesis?
16. Explain what occurs and what the consequences are for each of the following types of gene mutations:
17. What are mutagens? Give some examples.