Urinary System

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What are the 3 stages of the urinary system?
-Filtration
-Reabsorption
-Secretion
What are the parts of the urinary system?
-Kidneys (2 right and left)
-Ureters (2 tubes)
-Urinary bladder (1 urine storage facility)
-Urethra (1 elimination of urine)
What are the kidneys and where are they located?
-Paired bean shaped organs
-Located in the posterior abdominal wall inferior to the diaphragm
-Retroperitoneal (behind peritoneal cavity)
What is the location of the RIGHT kidney?
-Inferior/Posterior to the LIVER and slightly LOWER than the left kidney
-Surrounded by the renal capsule (connective tissue) which in turn is surrounded by layers of fat
What is the location of the LEFT kidney?
-Inferior/Posterior to the SPLEEN and inferior to the diaphragm
-Surrounded by the renal capsule (connective tissue) which in turn is surrounded by layers of fat
What are the layers surrounding the kidneys? (Superficial to deep)
-Parareneal fat (Outer)
-Renal Fascia (acts as a shock absorber and anchors kidneys to the wall )
-Perirenal fat
-Renal Capsule (Inner layer of connective tissue)
What is the function of rib 11 and 12 to the kidneys?
They act as protection
What is a nephron?
-Functional unit of the kidneys
-Blood gets filtered when it enters the nephron
What are the parts of the nephron?
-Glomerulus (Ball of capillaries)
-Bowman's Capsule (Cup Like structure surrounding the glomerulus)
-System of collecting tubules and ducts
Where is the majority of the nephron located?
The majority is located within the renal cortex
The right and left renal arteries are branches of?
Abdominal aorta (Descending Aorta)
-Blood enters the kidneys by the right and left renal arteries and then blood drains into the inferior vena cava by the renal veins
What is located within the hilum of the kidneys?
-Renal Vein (Anterior) (Carries away)
-Renal Artery (Middle) (Carries into)
-Renal Pelvis (Posterior) (Carries urine away from kidneys)
What is the flow of urine through the kidneys?
-Renal Cortex (Outer layer)
-Renal Pyramid (Sitting within the medulla)
-Renal Papilla (Tip of every pyramid)
-Minor Calyx (Openings)
-Major Calyx (Openings)
-Renal Pelvis (Enlarged area)
-Ureter
-Bladder
What do the minor calyx form?
Converge together to form the major calyx
What do the major calyx form?
Converge together to form the renal pelvis
What is the location of the renal pyramid?
Sitting within the medulla
What is the course of the ureters?
They take an inferior/medial course from the renal pelvis then they enter the posterior/lateral aspect of the bladder
Where are the constrictions of the ureters?
1. at renal pelvis (where the renal pelvis converts to be the ureter)
2. at pelvis brim (where the ureter crosses the common iliac)
3. at bladder (where the ureter connects with the bladder)
What is the position of the female bladder?
-Posterior to pubic symphysis
-Anterior to vagina
-Anterior/Inferior to uterus
What is the position of the male bladder?
-Posterior to pubic symphysis
-Anterior to rectum and seminal vesicles
-Superior to prostate
What is the detrusor muscle and what does it do?
Muscle that expands with the filling of the bladder
What is the function of the rugae of the detrusor muscle?
It flattens which increases volume and capacity of bladder
What is the trigone?
-Contains openings for the ureters (Posteriorly) and opening for the urethra (Anteriorly)
-Doest change shape
-Inferior to the trigone is the internal opening of urethra
What is the position of the prostate gland in males?
Inferior to the bladder
What is the afferent arterial?
Takes blood towards the glomerulus
What is the efferent arterial?
Takes blood away from the glomerulus
Male urethra vs female urethra...
-Male urethra is longer and plays a role not only is urinary system but in the reproductive system as well
-Female urethra is shorter and does not play a role in the reproductive system
-Urinary incontinence and UTI is common in females due to the shorter urethra
What is horseshoes kidney?
-When the two kidneys fuse together
-Kidneys positioned inferior to its normal position
What occurs during a kidney transplant?
-The kidney is placed in the upper part of the pelvis
-It sits on the anterior/superior iliac spine
-Gets its blood source from the external iliac artery and vein
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