71 terms

Reconstruction Era (1865 - 1877)

Reconstruction & the Move West Unit Mr. Lickteig, Team 9 (8th grade) Fort Riley Middle School
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13th
amendment that officially BANNED SLAVERY in the US
14th
amendment that granted CITIZENSHIP to African-Americans
15th
amendment that gave VOTING rights to African-American MEN
sharecropping
economic method that was used in the South after the war; did not allow African-Americans to move up in society
black codes
laws that were passed to limit African-American freedoms in the South after the Civil War
carpetbagger
Northern Republicans who went to the South to make $$$ and rebuild
scalawag
white Southern Republicans who supported the North during the war
Freedman's Bureau
created in 1865 by congress; provided support for the poor in the South, especially EDUCATION
Radical Republicans
group of members of Congress who wanted the Federal government to PUNISH the South after the war
John Wilkes Booth
assassin of Abraham Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's vice president, was impeached because Congress thought he was abusing his power
impeach
the act of removing someone from office; requires 2/3rds of Senate to pass
10% Plan
Another name for the Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
Reconstruction
process of reuniting the country and rebuilding the South after the Civil War
435
total number of Representatives in the US
100
total number of Senators in the US
Congress
the name for the combined House of Representatives and Senate
Wade-Davis Bill
name for Congress' plan for Reconstruction; more harsh than President's
segregation
forced separation of whites and African Americans in public places
poll tax
charging money in order to vote; used to prevent African-Americans from voting
Ulysses S. Grant
President during the Panic of 1873, battled corruption in his cabinet
Panic of 1873
one of the biggest depressions in American history, occurs during Reconstruction
Compromise of 1877
an agreement between Republicans & Democrats that ENDED Reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes
man who became president after the Compromise of 1877, Republican
James Buchanan
president BEFORE Lincoln & the Civil War, often considered the WORST president in history
depression
an extended period of time when the economy of a country is poor
conspiracy
a plot to carry out some harmful or illegal act (especially a political plot)
Thomas Nast
"Father of American Cartoons"; drew political cartoons during Reconstruction; created popular images of Santa, Uncle Sam, and the Donkey / Elephant political symbols
Donkey
animal used to represent the Democrats; originally used in a campaign against Andrew Jackson
Elephant
animal used to represent the Republicans; Thomas Nast decided to use this animal because it was large, powerful, and intelligent
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Confederate general who after the war formed the KKK
Ku Klux Klan
group of white Southerners who intimidated and used violence to prevent African Americans from achieving equality in the South after the Civil War
Reconstruction Act of 1867
required Southern states to approve new constitutions and set up a five districts led by Union generals to keep the peace
Election of 1876
one of the closest elections in US History; caused the end of Reconstruction
Samuel Tilden
Democratic presidential nominee during the Election of 1876; won 184 votes but ended up losing by 1 electoral vote
Johnson's Plan
Reconstruction plan nicknamed "Restoration"; did not punish the South except for the rich & highest ranking Confederate officers; opposed equal rights for African Americans
Lincoln's Plan
Reconstruction plan that required 10% of the population to swear loyalty; granted amnesty to all Southerners except Confederate leaders; required new Constitution
ratify
to approve a law or amendment
amnesty
an offical pardon; prevents you from being trialed for a crime later
veto
President's "check" on the Legislative Branch; can reject a bill
override
Congress' "check" on the Executive Branch; can overrule a presidential veto with a 2/3 vote in both the Senate & House
Dred Scott
the 14th amendment overruled this Supreme Court case in establishing that African Americans born in the US were in fact citizens
Tenure of Office Act
created by the Radical Republicans to try and limit the president's power; required all personnel firings to be approved by Congress; Johnson ignored it
Edwin Stanton
Sec. of War during the Civil War; took charge after Lincoln was assassinated; was dismissed by Johnson ultimately leading to his impeachment trial
scandel
Something illegal and/or immoral that is often times covered up during a presidency; Grant's cabinet was target of three of these
Whiskey Ring
scandal during Grant's presidency when his cabinet members siphoned tax money from alcohol into their own bank accounts
inter
morpheme meaning "between"
re
morpheme meaning "again"
im
morpheme meaning "not or into"
amendment
official change to the Constitution
3/4
fraction of states that must approve an amendment before it can become law
integration
public areas that allowed BOTH white and African American people
New Slavery
nickname for the Sharecropping system in the South
speculation
buying or investing large amounts of money in something hoping to make large profits in the future
spec
morpheme meaning "to look or see"
Coinage Act of 1873
required all currency in the US to be backed by GOLD; helped cause the Panic of 1873
railroad
the major cause of the Panic of 1873; speculation in this caused the banks who funded it to fail
Panic of 1873 & Whiskey Ring
two major causes for the loss of the Republicans during the Elections of 1874 and 1876
deflation
when there is not enough money available for a population; SHORTAGE of $$$
inflation
when there is too much money causing the value of the money to go down; SURPLUS of $$$
Lincoln
president who's assassination doomed Reconstruction from the start
Chinese Exclusion Act
law passed by Congress during Hayes' presidency that banned a group of people from moving to the United States; Hayes' vetoed the bill but it became law two years later in 1883
Civil Rights Act of 1866
guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race or color, were entitled to the same treatment in public areas (inns, theatres, etc.) - ruled unconstitutional during the Slaughterhouse Cases
redeemers
Democrats from the South who won elections during Reconstruction and focused on returning the South to economic dominance (including new industries like timber, mining, etc.)
Slaughterhouse Cases
series of Supreme Court cases starting in 1873 that challenged the 14th amendment; court ruled that the 14th amendment only protected federal rights and not STATE rights
cash crops
plants that are grown in an area and sold for profit; the region depends on them
literacy test
some states required African Americans to take these to prove they were educated enough to vote; Jim Crow Law
grandfather clause
Southern states did not allow African Americans to vote if any of their relatives had been a slave; Jim Crow Law
Jim Crow laws
series of state laws passed after 1877 that segregated African Americans and whites; some placed requirements on African Americans prior to voting
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case that legalized segregation in the US as long as it was "equal"
1896
year Plessy v. Ferguson was ruled on; start of legal segregation in US
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