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the capacity to do work

kinetic energy

the energy of an object that is due to the object's motion

potential energy

the energy that na object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object

mechanical energy

the amount of work an object can do because of the object's kinetic and potential energies

energy conversion

a change from one form of energy to another


a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact

law of conservation of energy

the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another


a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object

thermal expansion

an increase in the size of a substance in response to an increase in the temperature of the substance

absolute zero

the temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum (0 K on the Kelvin scale or -273.16 degrees C on the Celsius scale)


the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures

thermal energy

the kinetic energy of a substance's atoms

thermal conduction

the transfer of energy as heat through a material

thermal conductor

a material through which energy can be transferred as heat

thermal insulator

a material that reduces or prevents the transfer of heat


the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas

specific heat

the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 degree C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume

states of matter

the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas

change of state

the change of a substance from on physical state to another


the transfer of energyas electromagnetic waves

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