20 terms

Ch. 5 & 6

the capacity to do work
kinetic energy
the energy of an object that is due to the object's motion
potential energy
the energy that na object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object
mechanical energy
the amount of work an object can do because of the object's kinetic and potential energies
energy conversion
a change from one form of energy to another
a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
thermal expansion
an increase in the size of a substance in response to an increase in the temperature of the substance
absolute zero
the temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum (0 K on the Kelvin scale or -273.16 degrees C on the Celsius scale)
the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
thermal energy
the kinetic energy of a substance's atoms
thermal conduction
the transfer of energy as heat through a material
thermal conductor
a material through which energy can be transferred as heat
thermal insulator
a material that reduces or prevents the transfer of heat
the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
specific heat
the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 degree C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume
states of matter
the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
change of state
the change of a substance from on physical state to another
the transfer of energyas electromagnetic waves