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developmental psychology chapter 9
Terms in this set (66)
symbolic function improves and language becomes more complex; pretend play becomes more complex
children concrete in thinking; assume if appearance changes, so do underlying qualities
lack of conversation
don't understand that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement, physical appearance of objects
why do kids have errors in thinking?
cannot decenter and instead focus on single aspect of reality, haven't mastered reversibility
ability to focus on two aspects of reality or dimensions of a problem simultaneously
process of mental undoing or reversing action
tendency to view world solely from one's own perspective
what is an example of egocentrism?
three mountains task: children assume everyone sees what they see from their perspective
think everyone has same thoughts feelings, desires as they do
theory of mind
knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and influences behavior; gradual increase in understanding from infancy through preschool years
age 3 in theory of mind
rudimentary ToM, but don't understand that actions are based on individual perceptions of reality that can differ
age 4 in theory of mind
they start understanding that beliefs may not match reality, but can still influence actions; don't understand that people are thinking even when it's obvious
what are some factors that contribute to development of ToM?
language development, pretend play, social experience
what is the main idea of vygotsky's sociocultural perspective?
cognitive development highly influenced by social interaction and culture; kid's are seen as apprentices
what affects cognitive development according to vygotsky?
tools of intellectual adaptation
methods of thinking and problem solving that are passed on in a culture; cognitive skills are context-specific
zone of proximal development
gap between what persons can accomplish alone versus with assistance of skilled partner
best opportunity for cognitive growth
tasks just beyond child's capabilities alone, but possible with assistance
more skilled person engages in what?
scaffolding=carefully tailoring help to the level of learning
what was piaget's view on why children talk to themselves?
young children's speech that is not directed at other people; due to egocentrism
what was vygotsky's view on why children talk to themselves?
speech private speech
speech is directed to self that guides thoughts and behaviors; overtime, private speech is internalized
does research support piaget or vygotsky?
supports vygotsky; private speech starts as instructions given by more experienced person
kids who use more private speech are more what?
attentive, more competent at task; private speech is internalized as kids develop but kids with behavioral/learning problems use private speech longer
what were the evaluations of vygotsky?
emphasized impact of culture on cognitive development, useful in school, focus on verbal interaction, but not very precise so hard to test
preschool language development
vocabulary continues to grow rapidly, average 10,000-15,000 words by 6, use fast mapping and syntactical bootstrapping
connecting a new word with its meaning after only a brief encounter
figure out meaning of words by observing how they're used in structure of sentence
in preschool what happens to sentences?
they slowly become more complex and less holographic; around 3 start using grammatical modifiers
applying rules of grammar to exceptions where rules don't apply ex/daddy "go-ed" instead of daddy went
effects of the environment on language development
children living in poverty hear fewer words (they are spoken to and interacted with less often and less likely to be read too)
children living in poverty
have smaller vocabulary; differences begin early: slower verbal processing at 18mo and learn fewer words between 18mo and 24mo; lower IQ's by the age of 5
information processing approach
focus on changes in the kinds of mental programs that children use when approaching problems; analogous to the way a computer program becomes more sophisticated as a programmer modified in on the basis of experience
what are preschooler's understanding of numbers?
have greater understanding than piaget thought; they count in a systematic manner but understanding of numbers isn't precise
memory of a particular event of one's own life achieves little accuracy until after 3 years of age
more about autobiographical memory
3 year olds can remember central features of routine occurrences, typically accurate in their responses to open-ended questions, memories partly determined by how soon the memories are assessed, not all biographical memories last into later life
broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur
forensic developmental psychology
focuses on the reliability of children's autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system; considers children's abilities to recall events in their lives and the reliability of children's courtroom accounts when they are witnesses or victims
if you tell a child the same thing everyday....
they are more likely to remember what you have said rather than what actually happened
preschooler are more prone to do what?
make inaccurate inferences about the reasons behind other's behavior and less likely to be able to draw appropriate conclusions
when is the error rate for children heightened?
when they are asked the same question repeatedly; false memories may be more persistent than actual memories
information processing theories in perspective
as preschoolers grow older: they have longer attention spans, can monitor and plan what they are attending to more effectively, and become increasingly aware of their cognitive limitations
information processing approaches
cognitive development consists of gradual improvements in the ways people perceive, understand, and remember information
what is the main criticism of information-processing approach?
it pays so much attention to the detailed, individual sequences of process that compose cognitive processing and development that they never adequately paint a whole, comprehensive picture of cognitive development
the aspect of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with others
speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person
early childhood education
children are enrolled in some form of care outside the home, which is designed to teach skills that enhance intellectual as well as social abilities; children can benefit substantially from involvement
the varieties of early education
child care centers, family child care centers, preschools, school child care
child care centers
provide children all day, primary purpose is still more social and emotional than cognitive
family child care centers
small operations run in private homes, quality of care is higher due to trained professionals
designed to provide intellectual and social experience for children limited in time schedules than family care centers
school child care
provided by some local school systems
preschoolers enrolled in child care center show what?
intellectual development that matches that of children at home and is often better
in child care
more verbally fluent, show memory and comprehension advantages, and even higher IQ scores than those of at-home children
children in high quality programs
more self confident, independent, and knowledgeable about the social world
children in child care
may be found less polite, less compliant, less respectful, and sometimes competitive/aggressive
high quality child care
care providers are well trained, appropriate overall size and ratio, curriculum of child care providers is planned out and coordinated among teacher, language environment is rich, caregivers are sensitive, material/activities are age appropriate, and basic health/safety standards are followed
head start program
serve the child's physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social/emotional development
developmentally appropriate educational practice
which is education based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child
what activity has the most impact on preschooler's cognitive development?
what is the most profound development in the preschool period?
substantial progress in language skills
what method of preschool learning enables children to be equal partners in the process?
the reggio emilia preschool approach
in which does a child play an active role in driving cognitive development?
once a child can combine words and phrases to form sentences, they are using what?
piaget's term for organized, formal, and logical mental processes
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