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Treaty of Ghent

(1814) Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Hartford Convention

(1814) A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.

War of 1812 outcome

Ended by the Treaty of Ghent (1814), restored status quo antebellum.

Transport Revolution

(1700-1900) as a result of an increased need for better methods of moving goods, new technologies and large scale investment in the countries infra-structure.

Cotton Gin

(1793) Invented by Eli Whitney. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields

McCulloh vs. Maryland

(1819) Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national govt. over state governments.

Worchester vs. Georgia

(1832) Marshall and the Supreme Court rule that could not control the Cherokee or their territory. Completely disregarded by Jackson

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward

(1819) US Supreme Court upheld the original charter of the college against NH's attempt to alter the board of trustees; set precedent of support of contracts against state interference

Marbury vs. Madison

(1803) Marshall first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress (Judiciary Act of 1789)

Gibbons vs. Ogden

supreme court decision that ruled that the constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.

Plessy vs. Ferguson

(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.

Schench vs. U.S.

(1919) In wartime, the fed government has the right to void freedom of speech, freedom of the press can be limited. Pamphlet urging resistance to the draft distributed in WWI. Expression can be limited if clear and present danger towards congress.

Corrupt Bargain

Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.

Jackson's Presidency

focused on the "Common Man;" removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto

Bank of the United States

destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution

Depression of 1837

Jackson got rid of the Bank of the U.S. and state banks took over; a time of debt and 'panic'

Monroe Doctrine

(1823) A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Missouri Compromise

(1820) Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36,30' within the Louisiana Territory

Industrialism Causes

Embargo Act, good geographical conditions for manufacturing, new inventions, the assembly line

Adams-Onis Treaty

(1819) Settled land dispute between Spain and United States as a result of tensions brought on by weakening Spanish power in the New World. U.S. gained Florida and renounced any claims on Texas and settled Mexican boundary.

Nullification Crisis

A sectional crisis during the presidency of Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828. Jackson responded with the Force Bill.

Alexis de Tocqueville

Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.

"Cult of Domesticity"

the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house

Election of 1824

Controversial election -> Jackson won the popular vote and the electoral votes, but not the majority, so the House had to choose. Clay had to forfeit, yet persuaded the House to vote for Adams. Adams won and made Clay secretary of state. Jacksonites called this the "corrupt bargain"

Native American Policies

- Move all Native Americans to the Great Plains in order to expand the country
- Cherokees of Georgia refused so Jackson passed the Indian removal act to provide money for their removal
- After much refusal, this led to military action and the trail of tears

Tariff of Abominations

Name given to the 1828 tariff because of its serious negative impact on the South's economy, while benefiting Northern and Western industrial interests. Led to the nullification crisis.

National Bank

(1791) Part of Hamilton's economic plan that provided a safe storage for government funds, sped up national economic growth. It was partly owned by the government and by investors. It's constitutionality was questioned.

Whig Party

believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)

Know-Nothing Party

Nativists. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party. Strong oppostition to the influx of European immigrants and their cultures.

1800's immigration

Ireland (push from potatoe famine). Germany (push from social revolution).

Lowell System

Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Mass. In these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the production process; the workers were almost all young single farm women.

Federal Government Revenue


Wildcat banks

The banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States' response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks.

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