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Campbell Terms for AP Biology


the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen, a catabolic process; anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration

the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen, a catabolic process; fermentation

Cellular respiration

the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP

Aerobic Respiration

the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy using oxygen along with the organic fuel; the most efficient catabolic pathway


the loss of electrons, or hydrogen atoms, from a substance


the addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a substance


oxidation-reduction reactions

Oxidizing agent

the electron acceptor


a coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain

Electron transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP


tthe process of adding a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP; cells use the energy released by ATP for metabolic activities


occurs in the cytoplasm, begins the catabolic process by breaking glucose into two pyruvates

Kreb's Cycle

the second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions; occurs within the mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes

Oxidative phosphorylation

the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration

Substrate-level phosphorylation

The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism; occurs during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

Acetyl CoA

the entry compound for the Kreb's cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme


an organic molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes


an electron carrier; a coenzyme derived from riboflavin, a B vitamin

Mitochondrial Matrix

the space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion


inner foldings of the inner membrane of mitochondria

Intermembrane space

The narrow region between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria

Proton pump

a transport protein that moves hydrogen ions (H+) into the intermembrane space of mitochondria creating an electrochemical gradient

Proton gradient

a gradient formed by the difference in proton concentrations across a membrane


a process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.

ATP synthase

A large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP

Alcohol fermentation

a type of fermentation where the pyruvate is converted to ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and CO2 in two steps

Lactic acid fermentation

a type of fermentation where the pyruvate forms lactic acid as an end product,with no release of CO2


an organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration

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