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28 terms

AP Cellular Respiration

Campbell Terms for AP Biology
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Fermentation
the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen, a catabolic process; anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration
the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen, a catabolic process; fermentation
Cellular respiration
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP
Aerobic Respiration
the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy using oxygen along with the organic fuel; the most efficient catabolic pathway
Oxidation
the loss of electrons, or hydrogen atoms, from a substance
Reduction
the addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a substance
Redox
oxidation-reduction reactions
Oxidizing agent
the electron acceptor
NAD+
a coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain
Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
Phosphorylation
tthe process of adding a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP; cells use the energy released by ATP for metabolic activities
Glycolysis
occurs in the cytoplasm, begins the catabolic process by breaking glucose into two pyruvates
Kreb's Cycle
the second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions; occurs within the mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes
Oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration
Substrate-level phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism; occurs during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Acetyl CoA
the entry compound for the Kreb's cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
Coenzyme
an organic molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes
FAD
an electron carrier; a coenzyme derived from riboflavin, a B vitamin
Mitochondrial Matrix
the space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
Cristae
inner foldings of the inner membrane of mitochondria
Intermembrane space
The narrow region between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria
Proton pump
a transport protein that moves hydrogen ions (H+) into the intermembrane space of mitochondria creating an electrochemical gradient
Proton gradient
a gradient formed by the difference in proton concentrations across a membrane
Chemiosmosis
a process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
ATP synthase
A large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Alcohol fermentation
a type of fermentation where the pyruvate is converted to ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and CO2 in two steps
Lactic acid fermentation
a type of fermentation where the pyruvate forms lactic acid as an end product,with no release of CO2
Mitochondrion
an organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration