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Modern Biology Chapter 10

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virulent
describes a microorganism that causes disease and that is highly infectious; strictly, refers only to viruses that reproduce from the lytic cycle
transformation
the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
deoxyribose
a five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA molecules
nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidline; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
purine
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
pyrimidine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
base pairing rules
the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
complementary base pair
the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand
base sequence
the order of the nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
DNA replication
the process of makinf a copy of DNA
helicase
an enzyme that separates DNA strands
replication fork
a Y-shaped point that results when the two strandes of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
semi-conservatice replication
in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule,and one strand is new
mutation
a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule
RNA
a natrual polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
transcription
the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particulary the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
translation
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons on mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
ribose
a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
mRNA (messenger RNA)
a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein
tRNA (transfer RNA)
an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template
promoter
a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
termination signal
a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
genetic code
the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
codon
in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
anticodon
a region of tRNA that consistsof three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function