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describes a microorganism that causes disease and that is highly infectious; strictly, refers only to viruses that reproduce from the lytic cycle
the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidline; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
base pairing rules
the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
complementary base pair
the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand
a Y-shaped point that results when the two strandes of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated
in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule,and one strand is new
a natrual polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particulary the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons on mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
tRNA (transfer RNA)
an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation
an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template
a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
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