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Made by Vanessa, Eunice, Miranda

Permanent waving

-2 step process
-physical change cause by wrapping hair on perm rods
-chemical change caused by permanent waving solution and the neutralizer

concave rods

Most common type of perm rod, produce tighter curl in center, looser on end

straight rods

perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area

soft bender rods

Tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length. These soft foam rods have a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape.

loop rod

Tool that is usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod.

end papers

end wraps; absorbant papers used to control the end

double flat wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under,and one is placed over, the strand

single flat wrap

perm wrap similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper, placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped

bookend wrap

perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.

base sections

subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping;one rod is normally placed on each base section.

base placement

the position of a permanent wave rod in relation to its base section

on base placement

Hair is wrapped 45 degree beyond perpendicular to its base section

half off base placement

wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section.

off base placement

wrapped at a 45 degree angle BELOW perpendicular to its base section

base direction


croquignole perm wrap

wrapped from the ends to the scalp and overlapping concentrated layers

spiral perm wrap

Wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, like the grip on a tennis racket.

double rod wrap

also known as the piggy back wrap in which the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to midway down the hair shaft

Thioglycolic acid

a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasent oder. the most common reducing agent in permanet wave solution

ammonium thioglycolate

a alkaline and is the active ingredent or reducing agent in alkiline permanets

alkaline wave

( cold waves ) have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ATG as the reducing agent and process at room temperature wihout the additon of heat

Glyceryl monothioglycolate

the main active ingedient in true acid and acid balance waving solution

True acid waves

have a pH level between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process

acid balanced wave

which is permanet waves that have a 7.0 ie neutral pH

Exothermic Waves

creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the chemical solution and speeds up the processing

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