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Environmental Policy Midterm
Terms in this set (54)
undesirable effects or consequences - without being reflected in the costs of the goods or services involved
tragedy of the commons
An economic problem in which every individual tries to reap the greatest benefit from a given resource but no one wants to claim the harms that have been done to such resource. I.e. air pollution, river pollution, ocean pollution
began putting an emphasis on solving environmental problems without ignoring other factors such as social, economic, and cultural.
refers to the combination of international institutions, customary norms and principles, and formal treaty commitments that guide the behavior of states related to a specific subject, problem, or region
similar to a bell curve. Problems increase as affluence does. Over time it gets better because they realize the problems and begin fixing and regulating.
United Nations Environment Program - developed in the Stockholm conference. Agency to help solve environmental problems.
1987 "Our common future" headed by former prime minister of Norway. Impact: countries came together at Rio '92: biodiversity convention, climate framework convention, "sustainable development"
polluter pays principle
the party responsible for polluting pays for the damage done to the environment. They taxed taxpayers and society at large which internalized (incorporated tax into pricing of the product) the cost of waste disposal into the cost of the product. This meant that producers would improve the waste profile of their products and make them cheaper to dispose which then encourages reuse and recycling.
trans-boundary pollution case between Canada and US. A smelter in Trail BC was harming crops and forests across the Canada-US border. It is the root of the international law where states are not allowed to produce pollution that will impact another state.
leave the environment as you found it (soft law), for future generations
a transnational network of experts who help decision-makers to define the problems they face, identify various policy solutions and assess the policy outcomes.
common but differentiated responsibilities
principle for international environmental law establishing that all states are responsible for addressing global environmental destruction yet not equally responsible.
when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effects relationships are not fully established scientifically
command and control
the direct regulation of an industry or activity by legislation that states what is permitted and what is illegal. (i.e. you shall reduce emissions by X amount)
collective (de-) legitimization
society is the collective and to legitimize something a law needs to be created. idea that international organizations serve the function of legitimizing or delegitimizing certain ideas and practices. promoted by individuals in international community and the general assembly by UN (nonbinding but recommendations are influential).
collective goods/free rider problem
collective goods are resources, goods, or services that people benefit from and do not pay for
i. the free rider problem happens when people over use these goods and take advantage or get greedy
ii. an example of a collective good is a common property like air
non-binding global action plan of the UN with regards to sustainable development. It was adopted by more than 178 countries at the Earth Summit. Forms the basis for a 'global partnership' to encourage cooperation among nations as they support a transition to sustaining life on earth. The central belief is that all countries can protect the environment while simultaneously experiencing growth. Lacks the force of international law but carries strong moral obligation to ensure implementation strategies
did not do anything - momentum had dissipated from efforts manifested at Rio
any assistance through the multilateral fund should be additional to any official developing countries
assists developing countries to the Montreal Protocol whose annual per capita consumption and production of ozone depleting substances is less than 0.3kg to comply with the control measures of the protocol.
Not In My Back Yard - where residents oppose development that is too close to comfort. The residents believe developments are needed in society but further away
It was big from the new found theory of ice ages. The Earth had natural climate change in cycles over time (astronomical/space changes)
- A graph that shows the ongoing change in carbon dioxide over time since 1958
The oceans pH has been dropping and even by 0.1 is an extreme amount that causes drastic effects. Destroys carbonate (makeup of the ocean pretty much)
Any change on the climate that is outside the natural climate system (so anthropogenic)
a legally binding declaration that includes developed countries commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Developing countries were exempted from binding obligations. This mandate laid the groundwork for Kyoto Protocol.
alliances of small island states - much more concerned about solving the problem because they will become flooded if sea levels rise
a. argued that their high emissions were because of making goods for developed countries and that developed countries should count AOSIS's emissions as theirs too
it was the resolution of the debate whether or not the US should sign the Kyoto Protocol and they concluded that they should NOT because it would result in serious harm to the US economy
Three mechanisms (JI, CDM, ET) under Kyoto intended to lower the overall costs of achieving its emissions targets. It enables states to achieve emission reductions cost-effectively in other countries
a. The cost to reduce varies to region to region but the atmosphere will benefit the same wherever the action is taken
if country A can cut emissions easily but country B can't country A can sell their excess to country B
a. any collaboration between countries (such as CEITS)
b. because their economies collapsed their emission reductions were much greater so they could make a lot of $ by selling since their real reductions were really high
i. the fear was that huge countries wouldn't even try to reduce domestically, they would just collaborate with CEITS
clean development mechanisms (CDM)
same as JI but only developing countries
a. China accounts for 60% of CDM projects
b. Developing countries said YOU created the problem so why are you paying me to fix it and gain from our reductions?
c. This created two big issues
avoids giving credits to projects in developing countries if the reduction in emissions would have happened regardless
i. it has to override reduction prediction baselines
ii. so if you switch a power plant from coal to nat gas but the developing country's economy is down and that caused a reduction in emissions anyways, then doesn't count because it's basically a double stack
when you establish a project in one place that reduces emissions (maybe by changing from coal to nat gas power plant) but then someone puts up a coal power plant somewhere else
i. Happened a lot with forestry - people cutting down timber in other areas after implementation of a protected forest project was put up
no regrets policies
a posture adopted by Bush '41 administration, took the position that the science is uncertain, didn't know if its worth making efforts to mitigate. no regrets, policies that are good in their own right, reduces cost and reducing American dependence on imported energy
specifically targets carbon dioxide like Cap and Trade in US
a. Where a country can by the rights to emit more carbon from a country that emits less
Assigned Amount Units (AAU) credits given for the reduction of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions among the former Soviet Bloc countries since 1990.
tax on carbon which had problems:
a. People don't like taxes so politicians did not like them (political poison)
b. Would not guarantee a specific level of emissions reduction
lca and kp tracks
two separate tracks. Long term agreements. Kyoto Protocol. Idea was to have a track that went back to the framework convention that enabled the US to participate in the negotiations even though they were not a party to the protocol.
policies and measures (PAMs)
refers to an approach to climate diplomacy by the EU focuses on policies and measures where the EU wanted commitments on part of Annex 1 countries on particular things. US felt opposite, general target, include warming gasses, sinks and let countries get to those targets however they please.
a. EU: carbon taxes, goods become more expensive as a result of the carbon taxes, EU did not want to suffer in trade terms, lets look in individual sectors and have common policies.
i. Issue of: bunker taxes (bunkferfuel taxes): for aircrafts and ships which operate globally and contribute 2 or 3 percent of warming gasses, carbon is twice as likely to remain in the atmosphere than emissions from cars. Logic for a common tax, if they tax aircraft fuel, aircrafts can fuel up elsewhere
land use, land-use change and forestry
a. Human activities impact terrestrial carbon sinks through the above activities
renewable portfolio standard
RPS - standards that require that utilities' generation portfolios include a certain amount of renewables by a specified date
a. (basically means - it's a regulation that requires the increased production of energy from renewables)
b. Wildly successful for wind development
c. Requirements encouraged sale
d. Federal tax credits helped make wind economically competitive
tariff, if an area that adopts carbon taxes and has to compete with developing countries that do not have to deal with a carbon tax, developing countries have an advantage.
(Pooley 326-35) first bill either house of Congress had approve to reduce GHG emissions
a. Waxman - chair of the Energy and Commerce Committee
b. Markey - chair of that committee's Energy and Power Subcommittee
i. The bill proposed a cap and trade system
ii. Required electric utilities to meet 20% of their electricity by renewable sources by 2020
iii. The bill was approved by the House of Reps but defeated in the Senate
not legally binding
a. endorses the continuation of Kyoto
b. Underlines that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and emphasizes a strong political will to combat climate change
c. Prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate system and recognizes the science that the increase in global temperature should be below 2°C
a scandal when a collection of emails from the University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit were leaked revealing scientific fraud and data manipulation by climate change scientists
carbon capture and storage
technology that removes carbon out of large point sources, compresses and liquefies it and then ships it to underground storage
New International Economic Order
a. Set of proposals put forward by developing countries to promote their interest by
i. improving their terms of trade
ii. increasing development assistance
iii. developed-country tariff reductions and other means
1. Pennsylvania inversion layer where smog just sits there and people are exposed to ground level ozone and sulfur dioxide, those with heart or respiratory conditions are at severe risk
2. London 1952, that event killed at least 4,000 people, because of this air pollution came a real issue in London → passed clean air legislation
i. Minimata: industries were using mercury → water became poisoned → levels affected cats (crazy cats, suicidal cats) → became apparent in humans → company paid compensatory fines
first or most popular environmental mannifesto, written by Rachel Carson, the woods did not resound with the song of birds, the issue she zeroed in on was DDT the most popular pesticide which had a side effect that killed the birds, particularly bald eagles. However, DDT is effective in combating malaria.
first of the big supertankers that broke up. called attention to the problem of this kind of pollutant
clean air and water acts; i. Endangered Species Act;
ii. EPA) Earth Day, Limits to Growth, Stockholm
- Need evidence/proof
- Convincing the economy to follow the regime (money)
- Have all (most) parties for it (including the south)
- Convince them that it is worth fixing (self-interest)
- Time problems
- Disagreements on solutions and based off of what time periods
- Fear for change
a series of principles defining the rights and responsibilities of States;
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