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41 terms

Anatomy, Muscles, origin and insertion

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Platysma
origin: Acromion
insertion: Mandible
Action: Opens the jaw
Masseter
(21)
origin: Zygomatic
insertion: Ramus of the mandible
action: Closes the jaw
Rectus abdominis
(8)
origin: Pubis
insertion: ribs 5-7
action: Flexes the vertebral column
Latissimus dorsi
(2)
origin: Lower thoracic vertebra and lumbar vertebra
insertion: Lesser tubercle
action: Extends the vertebral column.
Biceps brachii
(10)
origin: Coracoid process
insertion: Radius
action: Flexes the antebrachium
Triceps Brachii
(8)
origin: Humerus
insertion: Olecranon
action: Extends the antebrachium
Biceps femoris
(8)
origin: Ischial tuberosity
insertion: Tibial condyle
action: Flexes the lower leg
Rectus femoris
(10)
origin: Acetabular rim
insertion: Tibial tuberosity
action: Extends the lower leg
Deltoid
(9)
origin: Acromion
insertion: Deltoid tuberosity
action: Abducts the humerus
Pectoralis major
(20)
origin: Ribs 2-6 and body of the sternum
insertion: Greater tubercle
action: Adducts the humerus medially and anteriorly
Gastrocnemius
(20 & 21)
origin: femoral condyles
insertion: calcaneus
action: Extends the foot
Tibialis anterior
(11)
origin: Lateral condyle of the tibia
insertion: Metatarsal 1
action: Flexes the foot
Gracilis
(9)
origin: Pubis
insertion: Medial side of tibia
action: Adducts entire leg
Gluteus medius
(2-cut)
origin: Iliac crest
insertion: Greater trochanter
action: abducts entire leg
origin
Stationary bony structure (anchor) that is point of attachment for muscle. (may become insertion point depending on action)
Insertion
Moveable bone that is point of attachment for muscle. (may become origin point depending on action)
Antagonistic muscles
One muscle flexes, pulls, a body part into a position, an antagonistic muscle flexes, pulls, to return the body part to it's original position.

ex: Biceps brachii raises arm, Triceps brachii lowers arm.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Inflammation of the tendon sheath, associated with the flexors of the hand and fingers. Swelling puts pressure on the median nerve and creates pain.
Strain
Muscle tear. (sprain is torn or stretched ligament)
Muscular Dystrophy
Progressive muscle weakness. Could lead to respiratory paralysis.
Myasthenia Gravis
Muscular weakness due to a malfunction of the immune system. The immune system seems to attack the neuromuscular junctions. The first symptom is usually ptosis (drooping eyelids). Weakness in the jaw muscle will continue to the point where the patient cannot move their jaw.
Fibromyalgia
Inflammation of the muscles and joints. Pain but no muscle weakness. Stems from unknown causes...possibly a virus.
Hamstrings
Biceps femoris (8)
Semitendinosus (12)
Semimembranosus (14)

These muscles make up...?
Quadriceps
Rectus femoris (10)
Vastus medialis (12)
vastus lateralis (7)
vastus intermedius (not visible-lies behind the rectus femoris)

These muscles make up...?
Rotator cuff
These muscles make up the...?
Supraspinatus (1)
Infraspinatus (2)
Teres minor (3)
Subscapularis (4)
Muscles that adduct the humerus
Teres major (not visible)
latissimus dorsi (8)
pectoralis major (6)

These muscles do what?
Muscles that open the mouth
These muscles do what?
Digastric (8 & 30)
Platysma (removed to show interior muscles)
Muscles that adduct the thigh
Pectineus (5)
Adductor longus (6)
Gracilis (9)
Adductor magnus (not visible in anterior view)

These muscles do what?
Muscles that abduct the thigh
Gluteus medius (12)
Tensor fasciae latae (15)

These muscles do what?
Antagonistic to the biceps femoris
Rectus femoris (10)
Vastus Medialis (12)
Vastus lateralis (7)
Vastus Intermedius (not visible-lies behind the rectus femoris)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?
Antagonistic to the gacilis
Gluteus medius (12)
Tensor fasciae latae (15)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?
Antagonistic to the palmaris longus
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (4)
Extensor digitorum (11)
Extensor Carpi Radialis (12 & 13)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?
Antagonistic to the deltoid (2)
Teres major (5)
Latissimus dorsi (19)
Pectoralis major (not visible-seen in the anterior view)

These muscles are antagonistic to which muscle?
skeletal muscles
voluntary
striated
fastest reacting
neurogenic
multi-nucleated
most attached to bone
Periosteum
membrane surrounding bones.
Membrane surrounding muscle attaches to membrane surrounding bone
Shin splint
pull periosteum away from bone.
Epimysium
(A)
Membrane surrounding muscle, "muscle sheath", made of connective tissue
Muscle fascicles
(B)
smaller units of muscle tissue
perimysium
(C)
Surrounds each fasciculus.
Contains many muscle fibers (D)
Endomysium
(A)
surrounds each muscle cell.
Antagonistic to masseter (2)
(8 & 30)
Gastric (antagonistic to...?)