50 terms

Anatomy Special Senses

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Gustation
the action or faculty of tasting.
Olfaction
the action or capacity of smelling; the sense of smell.
How are taste and smell chemoreceptors simila
both used to interpret a "taste" of an object
Olfactory (smell nerve) cells are stimulated by the odors around usthe fragrance from a rose, the smell of bread baking. These nerve cells are found in a tiny patch of tissue high up in the nose, and they connect directly to the brain.
Gustatory (taste nerve) cells are clustered in the taste buds of the mouth and throat. They react to food or drink mixed with saliva. Many of the small bumps that can be seen on the tongue contain taste buds. These surface cells send taste information to nearby nerve fibers, which send messages to the brain.
3. Where are most of the 10000 taste buds found?
tongue
sweet
sugars, alcohol, saccharin, and amino acids
salt
1. Metal ions
sour
hydrogen
bitter
4. Alkaloids such as quinine and nicotine
6. In order for chemicals to be tasted they must be dissolved in?
saliva
taste is connected to the sense of ___ by at least 80%
smell
8. Where do you find the olfactory epithelium?
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. In humans, it measures about 3 square centimeters (on each side) and lies on the roof of the nasal cavity about 7 cm above and behind the nostrils.
9. Where do you find most of the sensory receptors for light?
retina
10. What do photoreceptors detect?
Rods and cones / vision / located in retina (sensory tunic) / signals pass from photoreceptors via a two-neuron chain ----light
. What is (are) the purpose(s) of the following accessory structures of the eye: eyebrows, eyelids,
conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and extrinsic eye muscles.
eyebrows- prevent sweat from dripping into eye
eyelids- The eyelids serve to protect the eye from foreign matter, such as dust, dirt, and other debris, as well as bright light that might damage the eye. When you blink, the eyelids also help spread tears over the surface of your eye, keeping the eye moist and comfortable.
conjunctiva- The conjunctiva is the thin, transparent tissue that covers the outer surface of the eye. It begins at the outer edge of the cornea, covering the visible part of the sclera, and lining the inside of the eyelids. It is nourished by tiny blood vessels that are nearly invisible to the naked eye. helps lubricate the eye by producing mucus and tears
lacrimal apparatus- The lacrimal apparatus works to produce tears that are needed to wet the front of the eye and flush debris from the ocular surface.
extrinsic eye muscles-The extraocular or extrinsic eye muscles, considering their relatively small size, are incredibly strong and efficient. There are the six extraocular muscles, which act to turn or rotate an eye about its vertical, horizontal, and antero-posterior axes: medial rectus (MR), lateral rectus (LR),
major structures of eye
Aqueous humor - clear fluid filling the area between the lens and the cornea, composed mostly of water;
helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
Blind spot - area of the retina where the receptor cells converge to form the optic nerve.
Choroid - thin, dark sheet of tissue between the retina and the sclera.
Cones - receptor cells of the retina that are responsible for perceiving color.
Cornea - transparent covering that allows light to enter the eye; on a preserved specimen, the cornea is cloudy.
Hyaloid fossa - indention in the center of the vitreous body that supports the lens.
Iris - diaphragm that regulates the size of the pupil.
Lens - biconvex transparent structure that focuses the light coming in through the cornea and pupil.
Optic nerve - bundle of nerve cells that send signals from the eye to the brain.
Pupil - opening through which light enters the eye.
Retina - light-sensitive portion of the eye composed of receptor cells called cones and rods.
Rods - receptor cells of the retina that are responsible for perceiving difference in light intensity.
Sclera - outer covering of the eyeball; a tough, opaque sheet of connective tissue that protects inner
structures of the eyeball and helps maintain rigidity.
Tapetum - iridescent portion of the choroid tissue.
Vitreous body - the cavity between the retina and the back of the lens.
Vitreous humor - viscous fluid that fills the vitreous body; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
Zonula ciliaris - ligaments that suspend the lens and stretch it to focus vision.
three tunics of the eye
Tunics of eye. The eyeball (globe or bulb) has three concentric coverings (figs. 46-3 and 46-4): (1) an external, fibrous tunic comprising the cornea and sclera; (2) a middle, vascular tunic comprising the iris, ciliary body, and choroid; and (3) an internal, nervous tunic, or retina.
14. What is the blind spot?
Blind spot - area of the retina where the receptor cells converge to form the optic nerve.
difference between rods and cones
Rods - receptor cells of the retina that are responsible for perceiving difference in light intensity.
Cones - receptor cells of the retina that are responsible for perceiving color.
difference between humors of the eye
Vitreous humor - viscous fluid that fills the vitreous body; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
Aqueous humor - clear fluid filling the area between the lens and the cornea, composed mostly of water;
helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
how do we achieve depth perception
Depth perception is achieved when the brain processes different pictures from each eye and combines them to form a single 3-D image.
three parts of ear and how vibration of sound travels through it
The ear is made up of three parts: the outer, middle, and inner ear. All three parts of the ear are important for detecting sound by working together to move sound from the outer part through the middle and into the inner part of the ear. Ears also help to maintain balance. First, the air vibrations are converted to vibrations of the tympanic membrane and
ossicles of the middle ear. These, in turn, become vibrations in the fluid within the cochlea. Finally, the
fluid vibrations set up traveling waves along the basilar membrane that stimulate the hair cells of the
organ of Corti. These cells convert the sound vibrations to nerve impulses in the fibres of the cochlear
nerve, which transmits them to the brain stem, from which they are relayed, after extensive processing, to
the primary auditory area of the cerebral cortex, the ultimate centre of the brain for hearing
what are some changes that occur in our senses with age?
less perception, not as accurate, hard to see, less light absorbed, hard to hear, sound not perceived fully
define sensation
feeling that occurs when the brain interprets sensory impulses
What are the requirements for humans to become aware of changes in the external or
internal environment?
use senses to determine that there has been a change
define perception
the state of being or process of becoming aware of something through the senses.
define adaptation
to evolve/altering to become more suitable
free nerve endings
in epithelial tissues and are associated with sensations of touch and pressure
encapsulated nerve endings
Encapsulated nerve endings are dendrites wrapped in glial cells or connective tissue.
mechanoreceptors
Respond to physical deformation (Ex vibration, touch, pressure, stretch, tension)
thermoreceptors
Respond to changes in temperature
Nociceptors
Pain receptors. Nociceptors are found everywhere in the body except for the brain.
Photoreceptors
Nerve cells in the retina that code light energy into neural activity
chemoreceptors
Stimulated by change in concentration of chemicals
tactile receptors
tactile receptor a mechanoreceptor for the sense of touch.Tactile receptors provide human beings with important and useful physical impressions of the world around them.
reason for rapidly adaptive receptors
Nerve fibers that are attached to different types of skin receptors either continue to discharge during a stimulus ("slowly-adapting") or respond only when the stimulus starts and sometimes when a stimulus ends ("rapidly-adapting").
what benefit would there be for slowly adaptive receptors
Nerve fibers that are attached to different types of skin receptors either continue to discharge during a stimulus ("slowly-adapting") or respond only when the stimulus starts and sometimes when a stimulus ends ("rapidly-adapting").
two types of thermoreceptors
warm receptors immediately below the skin and cold receptors deeper in the skin
there are no nociceptors in the
central nervous system
kinesthesia
awareness of the position and movement of the parts of the body by means of sensory organs (proprioceptors) in the muscles and joints.
13. What are olfactory receptors responsible for?
smell
adaptive rate of olfactory receptors
very quick
5 basic taste
Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami
tastant
any substance, e.g., salt, capable of eliciting gustatory excitation, i.e., stimulating the sense of taste.
myopia
near sightedness
hyperopia
farsightedness
astigmatism
a defect in the eye or in a lens caused by a deviation from spherical curvature, which results in distorted images, as light rays are prevented from meeting at a common focus.
what happens when the eyes converge
your eyes need to turn inward together (converge) to focus. This gives you binocular vision, enabling you to see a single image.
semicircular canals
Your semicircular canals are three tiny, fluid-filled tubes in your inner ear that help you keep your balance. When your head moves around, the liquid inside the semicircular canals sloshes around and moves the tiny hairs that line each canal.
static equilibrium
The special sense which interprets the position of the head permitting the CNS to maintain stability and posture when the head and body are not moving; it is detected by mechanoreceptors in the vestibule of the inner ear, the utricle and saccule, which each contain a macula with the receptors for static equilibrium; when the head moves with reference to gravity, the otolithic membrane shifts and the mechanoreceptors (hair cells) in the macula detect this movement and send the information along the vestibular nerve to the brain for interpretation ("which way is up").
dynamic equilibrium
The special sense which interprets balance when one is moving, or at least the head is moving; the semicircular canals contain the receptors for dynamic equilibrium; within each semicircular canal is a complex mechanoreceptor called a crista ampullaris which contains the mechanoreceptors (Hair cells) for dynamic equilibrium; when the perilymph in one of the semicircular canals moves, the hair cells in the crista ampullaris are stimulated to send nerve impulses to the brain; this advises the brain of whether or not a person has their balance during body movements or if their body is in motion, e.g, riding in a car or turning one's head from side to side.
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