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the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
the part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors
the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing)
altered states of consciousness
mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness; Examples: sleep, daydreaming, dreaming, meditation, hypnosis, influence of drugs and alcohol
rapid eye movement sleep
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and linked to dreaming; also called REM sleep
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and apparent terror; unlike nightmares, night terrors are seldom remembered
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
A clinical technique used to help a person learn to relax by monitoring muscle tension, heart rate, brainwave activity, or other body activities.
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality
a substance capable of producing a sensory effect in the absence of real external sensory stimuli
a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
information that is more easily retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored
state- dependent memories
memories in which information is more easily retrieved when one is in the same physiological or emotional state as when the memory was originally encoded or learned
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
A form of memory, often called photographic memory, which consists of especially vivid visual recollections of material.
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
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