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55 terms

CH.5 and 7

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consciousness
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
preconscious
Information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness
unconscious
the part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors
nonconscious
the level of consciousness devoted to processes completely unavailable to conscious awareness (e.g., fingernails growing)
altered states of consciousness
mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness; Examples: sleep, daydreaming, dreaming, meditation, hypnosis, influence of drugs and alcohol
circadian rhythms
The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
rapid eye movement sleep
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and linked to dreaming; also called REM sleep
insomnia
an inability to sleep
night terror
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and apparent terror; unlike nightmares, night terrors are seldom remembered
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
meditation
continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
biofeedback
A clinical technique used to help a person learn to relax by monitoring muscle tension, heart rate, brainwave activity, or other body activities.
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
addiction
being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
intoxication
excitement and elation beyond the bounds of sobriety
narcotics
specific drugs that are obtainable only by prescription and are used to relieve pain
stimulant
a drug that temporarily quickens some vital process
amphetamine
a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite
hallucination
delusion; false idea; false perception of objects with a compelling sense of their reality
delusion
false belief; hallucination; deluding; Ex. delusions of grandeur
hallucinogen
a substance capable of producing a sensory effect in the absence of real external sensory stimuli
detoxification
a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
memory
the power of retaining and recalling past experience
episodic memory
memory for episodes in your own life
semantic memory
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
encoding
the activity of converting from plain text into code
storage
The process by which information is maintained over a period of time
maintenance rehearsal
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
elaborative rehearsal
Rehearsal in which meaning is added to the material to be remembered
retrieval
the act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost)
context-dependent memories
information that is more easily retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored
state- dependent memories
memories in which information is more easily retrieved when one is in the same physiological or emotional state as when the memory was originally encoded or learned
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
eidetic imagery
A form of memory, often called photographic memory, which consists of especially vivid visual recollections of material.
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
primacy effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
recency effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
chunking
the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
interference
electrical or acoustic activity that can disturb communication
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
schemas
conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world
recognition
designation by the chair granting a person the right to speak in a deliberative body
recall
cause one's (or someone else's) thoughts or attention to return from a reverie or digression
relearning
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
decay
Fading away of memory over time
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events immediately following a trauma
infantile amnesia
the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years (before age three)