Obesity: Aetiology & Treatment (5)
Body mass index =
weight (kg) / height (m)^2
25.0 - 29.9
at least 30
Rank the following in order of increasing obesity prevalence: whites, blacks, hispanics
What survey takes data on the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents?
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Relationship between overweight and underweight
- resources for morbidity associated with obesity diverts resources away from the malnourished.
What is the relationship of obesity prevalence and socioeconomic status?
trends are still upwards in lower socioeconomic groups
trends are downwards in higher socioeconomic groups
- overall plateau
Review obesity key points 1.
List 3 parts of the social environment that foster an obesogenic environment.
List 3 parts of the built environment that foster an obesogenic environment.
What foods have witnessed the greatest rise/drop in relative cost?
rise: fresh fruit and vegetables
drop: soft drinks
Are metabolic rates higher or lower in obese people?
Describe the PAL values of obese people in comparison to normal weight people.
- for a large person, low levels of activity expend more energy than in normal people.
Review energy balance of the body.
Review Australian female nutrition students study.
- this patient population is simply eating more.
Review obesity/polymorphism study.
Review physical activity/polymorphism study.
Review obesity key points 2.
Review physical activity statistics.
Review human behavior and exercise.
According to studies, does exercise increase hunger and food intake?
- excuse not to exercise
- exercise does not induce an automatic drive in hunger and food intake.
What 2 forms of compliance must be observed in order for exercise to be useful for weight control?
exercise regime --> must actually exercise
control over eating (no reward)
What 2 precautions must be taken with carbohydrate exclusion diets?
fruits and vegetable intakes are maintained
fat quality is appropriate (low in saturates), i.e. rape (canola) oil, olive oil, fish oil
inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases: reduces fat absorption from the gut
Orlistat side effects (2)
serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor: acts centrally to reduce appetite and may have some thermogenic activity
Sibutramine side effect
slightly raised blood pressure
- UK suspension due to CVD risks in January 2010
- withdrawn from US market by Abbot Pharma
Review obesity key points 3.