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What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
Transports nutrients, wastes, hormones, respiratory gases, salts, electrolytes
Protects against disease
Maintain water balance
Do the larger blood vessels have blood vessels of their own? If so, explain why.
yes because they require oxygen and nutrients
Describe the inner layer of an arterial wall.
endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) with connective tissue basement membrane with elastic fibers
How does the constriction and dilation of arterioles affect blood pressure?
the greater the number dilated, the lower the blood pressure
the fewer the number dilated, the higher the blood pressure
Why are capillaries a very important part of the cardiovascular system?
they connect arterioles and venules
they exchange materials with tissue fluid
Compare the wall of a vein with that of an artery. Which wall is thinner?
veins have same three layers as arteries, but middle layer poorly developed
Why is it said that the veins act as a reservoir?
because the veins hold the majority of the body's blood
As a serous membrane, what would the pericardium's tissue makeup be?
connective and endothelial tissue
What is the endocardium?
innermost layer of heart tissue that lines the cavities and valves of the heart
Describe the endocardium's tissue makeup.
loose connective tissue and simple squamous epithelial tissue
Name and describe the upper chambers.
atria (upper 2 chambers) are weaker and sends blood to lower chambers
Name and describe the lower chambers.
ventricles (lower 2 chambers) are stronger with thicker walls. R vent sends blood to lungs. L vent sends blood to rest of body
What are atrioventricular valves?
allow blood to pass from the atria to the ventricles, closing tight to block leakage of blood back into the atria.
What are the chordae tendineae?
strong fibrous strings that prevent the AV valve from inverting when heart contracts
Why is the heart called a double pump?
because the right ventricle sends blood into the lungs and the left ventricle sends blood into the rest of the body
Why are the walls of the left ventricle thicker than those of the right ventricle?
because it has a harder job of pumping blood to the entire body
What does a heartbeat consist of?
systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of the heart muscle
What does the SA node do?
it itinitiates the heartbeat and sends out an excitation impulse (pacemaker); caused the atria to contract
What are Purkinje fibers?
specialized muscle fibers that conduct the cardiac impulse from the AV bundle into the ventricles
Is the heartbeat regulated extrinsically? If so, how?
Yes by way of the autonomic system, a portion of the nervous system
Where and what is the cardiac center?
coordinates the activity of the autonomic innervation of the heart
located in the medulla oblongata
The parasympathetic system, which promotes functions associated with normal activities, ___ the heartbeat; while the sympathetic system, which regulates responses associated with stress, __ the heartbeat.
slows, speeds up
What does systolic pressure result from?
blood being forced into the arteries during ventricular systole
Where is albumin made and what is its task?
made by liver and takes care of blood volume and pressure
Where is globulin made and what is its task?
made by liver and transport and fights infection (antibodies)
What is hemoglobin?
a protein-based component of red blood cells which is primarily responsible for transferring oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
What is the significance of iron with regard to hemoglobin?
red blood cell production is decreased most often due to a diet that does not contain iron
What happens to the erythrocytes heme?
Heme is degraded and excreted as bile pigments; color of feces and bruises
What may cause anemia?
1. decreased production of red blood cells
2. loss of red blood cells from the body
3. destruction of red blood cells in the body
What does erythropoietin do?
stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow when it senses that the oxygen level in the body's tissues is low
What is phagocytosis?
a process which is used by cells to engulf and subsequently ingest particles of nutrients or bacteria.
What do B lymphocytes do?
stay within the bone marrow until they are mature. once mature, they spread throughout the body and concentrate in the spleen and lymph nodes
Summarize the steps in clotting using Figure 12.14.
1. platelets & damaged tissue release prothrombin activator
2. thrombin act on fibrinogen to form fibrin threads
3. red blood cells get caught in fibrin threads
What are stem cells?
any cells that can divide and differentiate into more functionally specific cells
What are 2 types of stem cells derived from multipotent stem cells that give rise to the different type of formed elements?
myeloid stem cells
lymphoid stem cells
What are two forces that primarily control movement of fluid through the capillary wall?
osmotic pressure & blood pressure
Explain briefly what happens at the arterial end of a capillary?
blood pressure is higher than osmotic & water exits
Explain briefly what happens at the venous end?
osmotic pressure is greater than blood pressure; water moves into the capillaries
How does tissue fluid form?
when small substances of of red blood cells and plasma proteins leave the capillaries
Why does tissue fluid usually lack plasma proteins?
because the proteins generally stay in the capillaries
What genetic factors predispose an individual to cardiovascular disease?
1. family history of heart attacks under 55
What ABO blood types are the most common and the least common among U.S. African Americans?
What ABO blood types are the most common and the least common among U.S. Caucasians?
Do Rh-negative individuals normally make antibodies against the Rh antigen?
do not normally have antibody for antigen unless exposed to it
Why can this be a problem?
not problem for first baby but subsequent babies if rhogam shot is not administered in pregnancy or no later than 72 hours after giving birth to Rh+ baby
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