25 terms

Ch. 31 Alan Brinkley APUSH

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Terms in this set (...)

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Zealous religious leader in Iran who took over after the shah fled the country during the Iranian Revolution.
Bill Clinton
(Election of 1992) Young five-term governor of Arkansas who led a skilled campaign that emphasized broad economic issues instead of the racial and cultural questions that had divided Democrats in the past
Camp David Accords
Carter's greatest achievement. Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel (Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin) Summit conference at Camp David in September 1978 and persuaded them to remain there for two weeks while he and others helped mediate the disputes between them. Begin and Sadat returned to the White House to sign this formal peace treaty.
Christian Coalition
A political movement created by Pat Robertson that brought some former rivals together. Catholics opposed the Supreme Court ruling in Roe v. Wade (legalized abortion) and were soon joined by Evangelical Protestants and Mormons.
George H.W. Bush
(Election of 1988) While VP, he failed to spark popular enthusiasm. Beginning at the Republican Convention, he staged a remarkable turnaround by making his campaign a relentless attack on his Democratic opponent (Dukakis) which tied him to the liberals. Revealed the political aggressiveness of the Republican right. Won by substantial numbers, but Democrats still retained secure majorities in both houses.
Gerald Ford
Tried to rebuild confidence in government after the Watergate scandals and to restore economic prosperity. Wanted to establish himself as a symbol of political integrity. Wanted to curb inflation called for voluntary efforts instead of wage and price controls. Serious recession 1974-75 and a serious energy crisis.
Glasnost
Drastic initiative created by Soviet Gorbachev which dismantled many of the repressive mechanisms that had been conspicuous features of Soviet life for over half a century.
Iran-Contra Scandal
(Reagan administration) Revelation that the White House had sold weapons to the government of Iran in order to secure release of several American hostages that were being held by radical Islamic groups in the Middle East. Some of the money from the deal had even illegally funneled into a fund to aid the contras in Nicaragua. Did serious damage to the Reagan administration.
Jerry Falwell
Fundamentalist minister in VA with a substantial TV audience that launched a movement called the Moral Majority.
Jimmy Carter
Democrat who campaigned for presidency as an "outsider", representing Americans suspicious of entrenched bureaucracies and complacent public officials. Associated with many Georgians in the White House. Critics said he provided no overall vision or direction to his government. His legislative agenda included major reforms of the tax and welfare systems but Congress didn't pass any of it. Devoted much time to energy and economy problems. Inflation soared but unemployment declined.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Created two initiatives: glasnost and perestroika. Economic problems in USSR convinced him that it could no longer sustain its extended commitments around the world. Reduced Soviet influence in Europe and all the communist states in Europe collapsed.
Moral Majority
A movement created by Jerry Falwell that attacked the rise of "secular humanism" which was a term that many conservative evangelicals used to describe the rejection of religion in American culture.
Neo-conservatives
A group of intellectuals who gave to the right a firm base among opinion leaders. Many of these people had once been socialists or liberals. During 1960s, they became alarmed by the destructive radicalism that was destabilizing American life. They were sympathetic to the complaints and demands of capitalists. Principal concern was to reaffirm Western democratic, anticommunist values and commitments.
New Right
Origins lay in the election of 1964... Richard Viguerie (conservative activist and organizer) made a list of conservative contributors... conservatives found themselves better funded and organized than their opponents.
Pat Robertson
Pentecostal minister that started the Christian Coalition
Perestroika
Dramatic initiative created by Soviet Gorbachev that was an effort to restructure the rigid and unproductive Soviet economy by introducing such elements of capitalism as private ownership and profit motive.
Reagan Doctrine
A new American activism in the Third World in which the Reagan administration supported opponents of communism whether or not they had any direct connection to the Soviet Union.
Reaganomics
(Election of 1980) Operated from the assumption that the woes of the American economy were a result of excessive taxation, which dissimulated investment and growth. His solution was to reduce taxes and the federal budget.
Ronald Reagan
Well-known film actor who turned into a political activist and became the hope of the new right. Defended individual freedom and private enterprise. Won the first of two terms as governor of California.
Ross Perot
(Election of 1992) Texas billionaire who became an independent candidate by tapping popular resentment of the federal bureaucracy and by promising uncompromising leadership to deal with the fiscal crisis. Withdrew from the race after hostile scrutiny from the media but then reentered and regained much of his support.
Saddam Hussein
Militaristic leader of Iraq who announced in 1990 that he was annexing Kuwait and set out to entrench his forces there. Bush convinced the UN to create a trade embargo with Iraq in the Gulf War.
Sagebrush Revolution
Emerged in parts of the West and mobilized conservative opposition to environmental laws and restrictions on development. Sought to portray the West as a victim of government control. Complained about the large amounts of land that the federal government owned in many western states and demanded that the land be opened for development.
Sunbelt
Term coined by Kevin Phillips. Included the Southeast (Florida), the Southwest (Texas), and above all CALIFORNIA--most populous state.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Reagan's proposal that is widely known as "Star Wars". Through use of lasers and satellites, the SDI could provide an effective shield against incoming missiles, therefore making nuclear weapons obsolete.
Tiananmen Square
Led by students in China who called for greater democratization. However, harsh leaders took over government and sent military to crush uprising. Bloody assault in Beijing... unknown number of demonstrators died. Did not stop Chinese efforts to modernize and Westernize its economy.