40 terms

RT: UNIT 3- Analog Recording

what is selective synchronization?
the ability to lock two or more signals or devices that have microprocessor intelligence so that they operate at precisely the same rate.
how do we measure tape speed? What happens when you increase/decrease tape speed?
we measure tape speed in inches per second. when you increase a tape speed it creates a higher upper-frequency limit, and when you lower the tape speed it creates a lower-frequency limit.
what is print through and how do we reduce the effect?
print through is when signals from one layer of the tape magnetize the next layer. we can reduce this effect by turning the room temperature to a cooler temperature around 60-65 degrees and storing the tape "tails out" (end of tape on the outside)
what happens when you make a copy of analog tape?
copying analog tape is called 'dubbing.' when you do this noise increases and wow and fluter increases. (wow and fluter increases because of inconsistent movement of the tape.)
know the order and function of 3 tape heads on a tape machine.
tape heads are transducers. they take electrical energy and convert it into magnetic flux (change in magnetic energy). there are three types. in order: the erase head, record head, and the playback head. the erase head- simply erases the prerecorded signal. record head- transforms the analog signal into corresponding magnetic fields so tape can record (store) the signal, or magnetic energy. playback head- 'flux' induced when recorded tape crosses head gap. the current flows corresponding to stored mag. energy or signal.
know the process on which we record onto magnetic tape.
know the 3 distinct sections of analog tape recorder
transport- responsible for physically moving the tape, housing the controls, and giving the ability to erase, record and play. metering- responsible for measuring how much signal goes to the tape and from the tape. electronics- "guts," the controls motors that move the tape and switch between functions.
oberlin smith
produced an early decryption of magnetic recording.
vlademir poulsen
invented the telegraphone which was the first working magnetic recorder.
fritz pfleumer
he was a paper manufacturer, who was granted a patent in Germany for the application of magnetic powders to a strip of paper film.
john t. (jack) mullin
sold two tape magnetophon tape decks to ampex. this began a "revolution
what is a plug-in?
an add on software tool that gives a hard disk recording/editing system signal processing alternatives beyond what the original system provides. available separately or on bundles.
what is the difference between analog and digital processors?
analog- modifies the signal in "real time", is built-in and external only, and has no software. digital- converts to 'binary' and modifies via algorithm, has built-in, external and plug ins, and has software to operate.
what do spectrum processors effect, how do we use them?
they filter, equalize and have filter effects.
low pass/high pass filter (differences)
low pass- attenuates all frequencies ABOVE a given frequency (passes lows). high pass- attenuates all frequencies BELOW a given frequency (passes highs). band pass - attenuates all frequencies above AND below two given frequencies (passes a band).
filter vs. a shelving EQ
a filter can only attenuate certain bands of frequencies. and EQ can either increase or decrease selected frequencies. EQ shelving boosts and cuts from a cutoff (turnover) frequency equally onward. it gently flattens out into a straight line (shelf)
notch filter
a filter capable of attenuating an extremely narrow bandwidth of frequencies
parametric EQ/what each parameter you can control does
it is an equalizer in which the bandwidth of a selected frequency is continuously variable (sweep-able).
What is Q?
a measure of the bandwidth of frequencies an equalizer effect
What do time/spatial processors effect? How do we use them?
EFFECTS! responsible for reverb, doubling, delays, etc.
what is echo? what are its different uses?
sound reflections delayed by 35 ms or more that are perceived as discrete repetitions of the direct sound. uses- creating a delayed sound or chorus.
what is a spring reverb? how is it made?
reverb that is measured 60-70s. used mostly in guitar amplifiers to create a particular sound. isn't the best quality/sound.
what is a plate reverb? how is it made?
a mechanical-electronic device consisting of a thin steel plate suspended under tension in and enclosed frame. a moving-coil driver, acting like a small speaker, vibrates the plate, thus transducing the electrical signals from the console into mechanical energy. a contact mic picks up the plate's vibrations, transduces them back into electric energy, and returns them to the console thus creating the reverb effect.
what is the difference between flanging and phasing?
flanging is time-delay based (varying); it is the same signal fed to two tape machines. produces a comb-filtering (like vibrato).. you actually have to physically press on the 'flange'. phasing is the same but better quality and done completely on the computer. flanging doesn't normally occur at all today.
what do amplitude and noise processors effect? how do we use them?
effect the dynamic range- they control signals that vary in amp (level). they keep signal from distorting the recording medium. we use them as compressors, limiters, expanders or noise gates
compression ratio exceeds 11:1. output stays below a pre-set level
decreases gain (amp) as input increases. overall volume increase and affects the dynamic range.
(noise gate) allows a signal to passa t a predetermined point (threshold) but blocks those of less amplitude. :on-off switch". only aids in removing noise that ALREADY exists.
acts to increase dynamic range, decreases gain below threshold and increases gain above it, flipped ratio ("1:2")
threshold, ratio, attack, release
threshold- level at which compression takes effect. ratio- rate of change between input and output (e.g. 4:1). attack time- how long before compression starts (after threshold is reached). release time- time for compressor to return to normal.
when and where was Sgt. Pepper recorded?
Abbey Road Studios on June 1, 1967
what influenced the sound of the sgt. pepper album?
Pet Sounds by the Beach Boys
who is les paul? what are his major inventions/contributions to recording?
electric guitar.. first sound-on-sound recording (overdub), discovered tape delay, echo, recording at diff. speeds, close mixing technique, "digital audio"
there is too much mid-frequency on the guitar
there are a few places where the piano is too loud
can you make the vocal sound like I recorded in a cathedral?
can you make it sound like i have a group of me playing the guitar?
can you put some echo on my cowbell?
the guitar sounds good, but when i stop playing i hear the click track.
noise gate
both compressors and limiters...
1. "smooth" (reduce) the dynamic range 2. improve speech intelligibility 3. improve S/N (signal-to-noise) 4. more "power" or apparent loudness