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US History Chapters 8-9
Terms in this set (71)
The ______ experienced an early depression in the 1920s.
What was the reason that the group above was experiencing an early depression?
They were overproducing when the demand was lower so they went into debt and many lost their farms
How did European countries react to the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
They raised their tariffs in retaliation to this tariff raising America's
What occurred on Black Tuesday?
16 million shares were sold and the stock market crashed
Explain how the Great Depression in the United States lead to a worldwide depression.
Because before the depression we invested in many other countries so when we stopped investing it affected the other countries
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) loaned money to
banks (in hopes that large corporations would hire people).
What factors helped hide the economic problems in the 1920s?
The use of credit by Americans (because nobody noticed that the economy was failing)
Why did African Americans and Mexican Americans have an especially difficult time during the Great Depression?
They faced severe discrimination. They were the first to be paid off and many New Deal programs would not initially hire them.
Why did Roosevelt create the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)
The SEC regulated the stock market
Why did the stock market crash?
Investors no longer had confidence in their shares and began selling them
What were the causes of the Dust Bowl? How did farmers contribute to it?
The causes of the Dust Bowl was an immense drought and loose dirt.
Farmers moved protective grasses and did not put up wind barriers.
During the 1920s, the United States economy moved through the ______ phase of the business cycle? What does this phase mean?
It meant that the economy was going up
(The four phases of the business cycle included: Expansion, Peak, Contraction, Trough)
Why did President Hoover respond cautiously to the Great Depression?
He felt that the business cycle would fix itself so he did not want to offset it
Describe the policy of volunteerism.
A big part of public works
Why did many Americans decide that the country needed new leadership in 1932? Who was that new leader?
-They felt that Hoover was not doing anything productive and the things he did do didn't work out.
-Franklin D. Roosevelt
How did the uneven distribution of the nation's wealth lead to the depression?
Much of the wealth of the nation was concentrated in the hands of a few people while everyone else got the remaining money. The majority of people could not buy what was being sold.
What is the Bonus Army? Why did they march to Washington, D.C.?
The Veterans from WWI who were promised a bonus during the economic boom of the 1920s that wold be paid to them in 19432. The "Bonus Expeditionary Force" of veterans converged on Washington D.C. Seeking immediate payment abut the Senate rejected their demands.
How many terms was FDR president for? What amendment was established as a result of his lengthy presidency?
-The Twenty Second Amendment
What was the purpose of the National Recovery Administration (NRA)?
To get business, labor, and government to work together to set minimum wages and prices
What did the Bureau of Indian Affairs do?
It helped give Indians more freedom on their reservations and encouraged the practicing of traditional Indian religions - it essentially reversed American policy for Indians
The right to collective bargaining was part of the _______ Act.
What radio drama was so realistic that some people thought aliens were invading Earth?
The War of the Worlds
Name the reason why the New Deal art programs declined.
They became very controversial because some found the art that was being funded to be very objectionable. This varied from religious reasons to feeling it was too communistic.
Americans escaped their concerns in the 1930s by
What is the NIRA? Why was the NIRA unconstitutional according to the Supreme Court?
-the National Industrial Recovery Act
-It regulated interstate trade and the only group who could do that was Congress
Explain the New Deal coalition and what made it so powerful.
It gave the power to the Democrats and allowed them to control Congress for many years
What were the successes of the Social Security Act? What were its flaws?
-Successes: It helped the elderly
-Flaws: farm workers and domestic workers could not collect it
The Federal Art Project set a precedent for
arts and artists
How did the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) help farmers?
It helped to end overproduction and it helped to raise prices but, like the NRA, it was ruled unconstitutional
FDR set aside 12 million acres of land for
What were the goals of the New Deal? (Hint: 3 Rs)
What did Roosevelt and Congress pass the day after his inauguration?
They passed the emergency banking bill
Members of the ____ participated in a sit-down strike until General Motors agreed to recognize them.
The Rural Electrification Administration provided electricity to
______ was the first female cabinet member. What were her significant contributions during FDR's presidency?
She was the Secretary of Labor and she made better and bigger employment.
The ______ piece of New Deal legislation negatively affected Native Americans.
Navajo livestock reduction
What was the purpose of the American Liberty League (ALL)?
They were against the New Deal
Franklin D. Roosevelt:
The governor of New York who accepted the Democratic Party's nomination for President in July of 1932. Growing up in the upper-class, Roosevelt did not know economic hardship. He gained a great deal of self-confidence and a belief that public service was a noble calling.
President Roosevelt's distant cousin who he married in 1905. She became deeply involved in public affairs throughout her husband's presidency.
When Roosevelt originally pledged this he only had a vague idea of how he intended to combat the depression. He experiemented with different approaches to see which one worked best because he felt that the federal government needed to play an activve role in promoting recovery and providing relief to Americans. To help him plan this he sought the advice of a diverse group of men and women who were professionals and academics, whom the press dubbed the "Brain Trust."
A diverse group of men and women who FDR got advice from to help him plan the New Deal. Among the most influential of these advisors was a group of professionals and academics whom the press nicknames this.
First Hundred Days:
During this period, Roosevelt proposed and Congress passed 15 bills. These measures, known as the First New Deal, had three goals :relief, recovery, and reform. FDR wanted to provide relief from the immediate hardships of the depression and achieve a long-term economic recovery. Roosevelt also instituted reforms to prevent future depressions.
nformal radio speeches by the president to the American people that soon became an important way for the president to communicate to the public. In the first one of these, Roosevelt explained the measures he had taken to stem the run on banks. Through his calming words he convinced the American people that when the bank holiday ended, Americans didn't need to rush to the banks to withdraw their money.
Francis Townshend: One of Roosevelt's strongest critics who was a doctor from California. He had a simple program that called for the federal government to provide $200 a month to all citizens over the age of 60. He argues that these funds would filter out to the rest of society and produce an economic recovery. He established "Townshend Clubs" and held meetings that resembled old-time church revivals to promote this plan.
Huey Long: The senator of Louisiana who was the most popular New Deal critic. His "Share Our Wealth" program was his solution to the depression. It proposed high taxes on the wealthy and large corporations, and the redistribution of their income to poor Americans.
Second New Deal:
It addressed the problems of the elderly, the poor, and the unemployed; created new public-works projects; helped farmers; and enacted measures to protect workers' rights. In his fireside chats, press conferences, and major addresses, Roosevelt explained the challenges facing the nation. He said that the complexities of the modern world compelled the federal government to "promote the general welfare" and to intervene to protect citizens' rights.
it recognized the right of employees to join labor unions and gave workers the right to collective bargaining. Collective bargaining meant that employers had to negotiate with unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions. The law created the National Labor Relations Board to look into workers' complaints.
Fair Labor Standards Act:
Created in 1938, it provided workers with additional rights. It established a minimum wage, initially at 25 cents per hour, and a maximum work week of 44 hours. It also outlawed child labor.
Congress of Industrial Organizations:
Established by John L. Lewis, the president of the United Mine Workers and a number of other labor leaders. These workers that were the CIO's organizing campaign's target tended to be lower paid and ethnically more diverse.
Members of the CIO's newly formed United Automobile Workers Union (UAW) staged this in December 1936. They occupied one of General Motors' most important plant in Flint, Michigan. In a strike such as this, workers refuse to leave the workplace until a settlement is reached
The accusation critics made when FDR, in a special address to Congress on February 5, 1937, unveiled a plan that would dilute the power of these sutting Justices of the supreme court by adding up to six new Justices to the nine-member court. He justified this proposal by pointing out that the Constitution did not specify the number of judges on the Court and that many of the current Justices were elderly and overworked. Critics pointed out that Roosevelt's new appointees accused him of trying to increase presidential power and upsetting the delicate balance between the three branches of government.
Recession of 1937:
Roosevelt reduced federal spending in order to reduce the riding deficit, but miscalculated. He did this while the economy was doing better. The Federal Reserve Board then raised interest rates, making it more difficult for businesses to expand and for consumers to buy new goods and suddenly the economy was in another tailspin. Unemployment soared to more than 20 percent and nearly all of the gains in unemployment and production were wiped out.
New Deal Coalition:
A group of southern whites, northern blue-collar workers (especially those with immigrant roots) poor midwestern farmer, and African Americans. It gave the Democratic Party a sizable majority in both houses of Congress.
A government that assumes responsibility for providing for the welfare of children and the poor, elderly, sick, disabled, and unemployed. The creation of the American Welfare State was a major change in government policy because, with the exception of military veterans, most Americans had never received any direct benefits from the federal government. The New Deal established the principle that the federal government was responsible for the welfare of all Americans.
The Wizard of Oz:
One of the most memorable depression-era films that brought people relief from their concerns through good laugh, a good cry, a lyrical song, and seeing good triumph over evil. It promised weary audiences that their dreams really would come true.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarves:
A favorite among children during the Depression. They marveled at the colorful animation of the film by Walt Disney.
A director who was a leader in producing films that focused on the strength of average Americans. The characters in his films were everyday people struggling with the hardships of the time. His films celebrated American idealism and the triumph of the common man over the forces of adversity.
War of the Worlds:
Directed by Orson Welled, it was a radio broadcast by the Mercury Theatre. It was so realistic that millions of listeners could not recognize the difference between new and entertainment. Many people believed that Martians, were invading and panic gripped areas of the country until announcers insisted that it was all make-believe.
Federal Arts Project:
It offered a variety of job opportunities to artists. The federal government under the New Deal, provided funding for the arts for the first time in American history. It is a branch of the WPA that was created after WPA administrator Harry Hopkins established a special branch of the WPA to provide artists with work.
One of the Farm Security Administration (FSA) photographers who benefited from federal arts programs. The FSA sought to document the plight of America's farmers. Lange created powerful images of impoverished farmers and migrant workers.
Author of The Grapes of Wrath, which was the most famous novel of the 1930s. Steinbeck follows the fictional novel of the 1930s. Steinbeck follows the fictional Joad family from their home in Oklahoma, which has been ravaged by Dust Bowl conditions, to California, where they hope to build a better life but instead encounter exploitation , disease, hunger, and political corruption
An African American author during he 1930s who wrote Native son. The novel explored racial prejudice in a northern urban setting. He was an outspoken critic of racial discrimination.
Cartoons of the 1930s:
Among the most popular were Flash Gordon, a science-fiction saga;Dick Tracy, a detective story; and Superman, the first great "superhero" comic. Superman's successes, which began in 1938, quickly led to a radio show and later to a popular television series and several feature films. Superman reassured Americans that ordinary citizens, like mild-mannered Clark Kent, could overcome evil.
Civilian Conservation Corps - FDR's favorite program. It helped young (ages 18-23), unemployed, unmarried men get jobs without any experience (labor jobs: reforestation, soil conservation, cleared out national parks/battle sites) - created CCC camps - pay went to most family (parents)
Agricultural Adjustment Act - Farmers were paid subsidies to not plant on part of their land and kill excess livestock in order to reduce crops surplus which would raise the value of crops (ended because it was deemed unconstitutional)
National Recovery Act - set prices and wages that were fair - worker together to achieve fair prices and wages (deemed unconstitutional)
Public Works Administration - large scale constitution agency that gave jobs to the unemployed. More than 34,00 projects (airports, bridges, dams). It failed to build enough affordable housing
Civil Works Administration - build 12 million feet of sewer pipe, 40,000 schools, 1,000 air ports, roads, $2 million a month (too expensive = downfall)
Social Security Administration - Initially created to combat unemployment but now serves as a safety net for the elderly and disabled during unemployment/retirement
Woks Progress Administration - also employed artists, authors, set up the federal theater project
National Youth Administration - 4 ½ million youth employed, men and women, younger target group. Sent money to students for higher education and to parents
Securities and Exchange Commission - set up to police and regulate the stock market to make it fair for all investors
Tennessee Valley Authority - 2 fold -big public works, hydro electric dams - provided electricity (especially rural areas that did not yet have it)
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