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What is the most common basis for social stratification in every society?


Social Stratification

a system by which society ranks categories of people in hierarchy according to property, power and prestige


the practice of marrying one within one's group

The most significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate

class you can move up and down. within slavery, caste, and estate- lines drawn between people are firm, no movement from one group to another.

Characteristics of the class system

personal qualities, possessions, shape, clarity, mobility, permanence


authority, force, persuasion- ability to get your way

The best predictor of who goes to college


What did Marx predict would happen after workers were exploited year after year by the capitalist class

the workers would revolt

In the global stratification model, which nations would be considered the most industrialized nations, industrializing nations, and least industrialized nations?

First World- US, Canada, France, Germany
Second World- N. Asia and S. America
Third World- S. Asia and Africa

World system theory

economic and political connections that tie the world together

The purpose of colonialism as practiced by the major European powers during the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries

first industrialized got a jump on the world- gained power

Globalization of Capitalism

capitalism (investing to make money) becoming the globe's dominant economic system

Culture of poverty

Assumptions that values and behaviors of poor make them fundamentally different

four types of nations(world system)

core nations
external area

Major means of control used by neocolonialists to maintain global stratification

exploiting weaker countries with international markets- weapons and manufactured goods were sold

Weber's three variables that define social class

property, power, and prestige


Income ownership of valued assets, control of the means for obtaining wealth, appearance of wealth "total value"

Income distribution of American


The democratic facade


The greatest influence on determining social prestige


Status inconsistenty

ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others

political view of people who are status inconsistent


Contradictory class locations

position in the class structure that generates contradictory intercepts

Variables used by Gilbert & Kahl to develop a six class model

Property, prestige, power and education

Which group of persons would have the narrowest field of eligible marriage partners based on background expectations?


What did Kohn suggest was the primary influence upon parents that emphasized how the reared their children?

lower class- have a boss to obey so they expect children to obey them
middle class- have more independence at work giving their children more freedom

Characteristics of people in various social classes

physical health, mental health, family life, education, religion, politicas, crime

Relationship between one's social class and one's chance of being a victim of crime

chances are greater at lower class

Intergenerational Mobility

change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next

Exchange Mobility

same number of people moving up and down that it shows little change in social class

Structural Mobility

change up or down due to change in structure of society not the individual

Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the US?

Native Americans

Feminization of poverty

refers to the situation that most poor families in the US are headed by women

Most likely segment of the population to experience poverty today

race, education, sex of head person, age

Relationship between births to single mothers and their level of education

less education

Length of time most people spend in poverty

one year or less

Social structure explanation of poverty

features of society deny access to education and jobs

Reserve labor force

"designed to keep unemployed alive during economic turndowns"

Relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification

poor class looking to be middle virtue concept
deferred gratification-doing with out something in present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future

Gender stratification

males and females unequal access to property, power, and presetige

How does Epstein explain what type of work is performed by men and women in each society


How do behavioral gender differences develop between men and women?


Why are females classified as a minority group?

had children so stayed at home while men made connections making them the dominant force

Goals of the radical and Conservative branches of the first wave of feminism


Three waves of feminism

1- right to vote
2- gender inequalities at work
3- removal of impediments of love and sex

Cause of sex typing of college majors


Gender tracking

follow gender, reinforce male- female distinctions

Where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?

25-65 or college graduates

Child penalty

women missing out on work experience and opportunities while they care for children

Testosterone bonus

men start at higher salaries then women

Glass ceiling

mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work

How do feminists view sexual harassment?

Men using positions of authority. Now women moving up so it is unacceptable

What two careers are most associated with being successful in politics?

law and business


category of people who see themselves and are seen by others as different because characteristics that are assumed to be innate and biologically inherited


Group set apart from others because of its nation origin or distinctive cultural patterns


killing or attempted killing of people because presumed race or ethnicity

Two myths of race

Myth- any race is superior to another
Myth- "pure" races exist

Minority group

subordinate group whose members what significantly less control or power over their own lives then the members of the dominant or majority group

Ethnic work

the way people construct their ethnicity- enhance with food, clothing, religion, and language

Positive prejudice

exaggerate virtues of a group- some group (typically one's own group) think they are more capable then others


an attitude (positive/negative) that prejudges a person on the basis of a real or imagined characteristics of group of which that person is a members


an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or group

What did Ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?



person or group that one blames irrationally for one's own problems or difficulties

Authoritarian personality

people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority and submissiveness to superiors

Selective perception

Seeing certain features of an object or situation but remaining blind to others

Indirect Transfer

making life so miserable for members that they leave voluntarily

Direct Transfer

dominant group expels minority

Internal colonialism

dominant country exploits minority groups for economic advantage

Forced assimilation

assimilation- minority absorbed into majority
dominant group refuses the minority to practice religion, language and customs


a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethic differences

Dysfunctions of racism Lecture


Origins of prejudice Lecture


Characteristics shared by most minority groups Lecture


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