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74 terms

Sociology

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What is the most common basis for social stratification in every society?
Gender
Social Stratification
a system by which society ranks categories of people in hierarchy according to property, power and prestige
Endogamy
the practice of marrying one within one's group
The most significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate
rigid
class you can move up and down. within slavery, caste, and estate- lines drawn between people are firm, no movement from one group to another.
Characteristics of the class system
personal qualities, possessions, shape, clarity, mobility, permanence
Power
authority, force, persuasion- ability to get your way
The best predictor of who goes to college
?
What did Marx predict would happen after workers were exploited year after year by the capitalist class
the workers would revolt
In the global stratification model, which nations would be considered the most industrialized nations, industrializing nations, and least industrialized nations?
First World- US, Canada, France, Germany
Second World- N. Asia and S. America
Third World- S. Asia and Africa
World system theory
economic and political connections that tie the world together
The purpose of colonialism as practiced by the major European powers during the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries
first industrialized got a jump on the world- gained power
Globalization of Capitalism
capitalism (investing to make money) becoming the globe's dominant economic system
Culture of poverty
Assumptions that values and behaviors of poor make them fundamentally different
four types of nations(world system)
core nations
semi-periphery
periphery
external area
Major means of control used by neocolonialists to maintain global stratification
exploiting weaker countries with international markets- weapons and manufactured goods were sold
Weber's three variables that define social class
property, power, and prestige
Wealth
Income ownership of valued assets, control of the means for obtaining wealth, appearance of wealth "total value"
Income distribution of American
Inequality-
The democratic facade
?
The greatest influence on determining social prestige
Wealth?
Status inconsistenty
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
political view of people who are status inconsistent
?
Contradictory class locations
position in the class structure that generates contradictory intercepts
Variables used by Gilbert & Kahl to develop a six class model
Property, prestige, power and education
Which group of persons would have the narrowest field of eligible marriage partners based on background expectations?
Capitalist
What did Kohn suggest was the primary influence upon parents that emphasized how the reared their children?
Occupation
lower class- have a boss to obey so they expect children to obey them
middle class- have more independence at work giving their children more freedom
Characteristics of people in various social classes
physical health, mental health, family life, education, religion, politicas, crime
Relationship between one's social class and one's chance of being a victim of crime
chances are greater at lower class
Intergenerational Mobility
change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
Exchange Mobility
same number of people moving up and down that it shows little change in social class
Structural Mobility
change up or down due to change in structure of society not the individual
Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the US?
Native Americans
Feminization of poverty
refers to the situation that most poor families in the US are headed by women
Most likely segment of the population to experience poverty today
race, education, sex of head person, age
Relationship between births to single mothers and their level of education
less education
Length of time most people spend in poverty
one year or less
Social structure explanation of poverty
features of society deny access to education and jobs
Reserve labor force
"designed to keep unemployed alive during economic turndowns"
Relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification
poor class looking to be middle virtue concept
deferred gratification-doing with out something in present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future
Gender stratification
males and females unequal access to property, power, and presetige
How does Epstein explain what type of work is performed by men and women in each society
?
How do behavioral gender differences develop between men and women?
?
Why are females classified as a minority group?
had children so stayed at home while men made connections making them the dominant force
Goals of the radical and Conservative branches of the first wave of feminism
?
Three waves of feminism
1- right to vote
2- gender inequalities at work
3- removal of impediments of love and sex
Cause of sex typing of college majors
?
Gender tracking
follow gender, reinforce male- female distinctions
Where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
25-65 or college graduates
Child penalty
women missing out on work experience and opportunities while they care for children
Testosterone bonus
men start at higher salaries then women
Glass ceiling
mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
How do feminists view sexual harassment?
Men using positions of authority. Now women moving up so it is unacceptable
What two careers are most associated with being successful in politics?
law and business
Race
category of people who see themselves and are seen by others as different because characteristics that are assumed to be innate and biologically inherited
Ethnicity
Group set apart from others because of its nation origin or distinctive cultural patterns
Genocide
killing or attempted killing of people because presumed race or ethnicity
Two myths of race
Myth- any race is superior to another
Myth- "pure" races exist
Minority group
subordinate group whose members what significantly less control or power over their own lives then the members of the dominant or majority group
Ethnic work
the way people construct their ethnicity- enhance with food, clothing, religion, and language
Positive prejudice
exaggerate virtues of a group- some group (typically one's own group) think they are more capable then others
Prejudice
an attitude (positive/negative) that prejudges a person on the basis of a real or imagined characteristics of group of which that person is a members
Discrimination
an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or group
What did Ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?
?
Scapegoat
person or group that one blames irrationally for one's own problems or difficulties
Authoritarian personality
people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority and submissiveness to superiors
Selective perception
Seeing certain features of an object or situation but remaining blind to others
Indirect Transfer
making life so miserable for members that they leave voluntarily
Direct Transfer
dominant group expels minority
Internal colonialism
dominant country exploits minority groups for economic advantage
Forced assimilation
assimilation- minority absorbed into majority
dominant group refuses the minority to practice religion, language and customs
Multiculturalism
a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethic differences
Dysfunctions of racism Lecture
?
Origins of prejudice Lecture
?
Characteristics shared by most minority groups Lecture
?