13 terms

VOWELS: monophthongs and diphthongs

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Vowels: definitions
1 - not consonants
2- can form (stressed) syllables and words alone (functional definition)
3- articulated with a relatively open vocal tract i.e. without noticeable constriction (articulatory definition) -> no contact between articulator
Classificiation (vowels are described with reference to)
QUALITY: depends on the position of the tongue and shape of the mouth.

e.g. /ɑ:/ in far vs /ɔ:/ in floor

QUANTITY: the length (duration) of the articulation.

e.g. /ʊ/ in put vs. /u:/ in boot
Two basic types of vowels
1 - monophthongs
2 - diphthong
Monophthongs
A vowel which is stable in quality throughout
Diphthongs
A vowel which changes in quality - combination of two vowels
Articulatory classification
Position of the tongue:
- Part of tongue is raised: front - central - back
- Degree of raising (height): close - close.mid - mid -open.mid - open

Lips:
- Degree of rounding: spread - neutral - rounded

Length (quantity):
- Duration: long - short
Long monophthongs
p. 3 in handout (VOWELS)
Short monophthongs
p. 4 in handout (VOWELS)
Weak vowels (unstressed)
p. 5 in handout (VOWELS)
Diphthongs: definition (again) and types
Definition: Glide from one vowel quality to another withing one syllable.

1 - front closing: /eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ/ -> glide tow [ɪ]
2 - back closing: /aʊ, əʊ (RP), oʊ (AM)/ -> glide tow [ʊ]
3 - Centring (only RP): /ɪə, eə, ʊə/ -> glide tow [ə]
Front closing diphthongs
/eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ/ - p. 1 & 2 in handout (DIPHTHONGS)
The back-closing diphthongs
/aʊ, əʊ (RP), oʊ (AM)/ - p. 2 in handout (DIPHTHONGS)
The central diphthongs (RP)
/ɪə, eə, ʊə/ - p. 3 in handout (DIPHTHONGS)