1 - not consonants 2- can form (stressed) syllables and words alone (functional definition) 3- articulated with a relatively open vocal tract i.e. without noticeable constriction (articulatory definition) -> no contact between articulator
Classificiation (vowels are described with reference to)
QUALITY: depends on the position of the tongue and shape of the mouth.
e.g. /ɑ:/ in far vs /ɔ:/ in floor
QUANTITY: the length (duration) of the articulation.
e.g. /ʊ/ in put vs. /u:/ in boot
Two basic types of vowels
1 - monophthongs 2 - diphthong
A vowel which is stable in quality throughout
A vowel which changes in quality - combination of two vowels
Position of the tongue: - Part of tongue is raised: front - central - back - Degree of raising (height): close - close.mid - mid -open.mid - open
Lips: - Degree of rounding: spread - neutral - rounded
Length (quantity): - Duration: long - short
p. 3 in handout (VOWELS)
p. 4 in handout (VOWELS)
Weak vowels (unstressed)
p. 5 in handout (VOWELS)
Diphthongs: definition (again) and types
Definition: Glide from one vowel quality to another withing one syllable.
1 - front closing: /eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ/ -> glide tow [ɪ] 2 - back closing: /aʊ, əʊ (RP), oʊ (AM)/ -> glide tow [ʊ] 3 - Centring (only RP): /ɪə, eə, ʊə/ -> glide tow [ə]
Front closing diphthongs
/eɪ, aɪ, ɔɪ/ - p. 1 & 2 in handout (DIPHTHONGS)
The back-closing diphthongs
/aʊ, əʊ (RP), oʊ (AM)/ - p. 2 in handout (DIPHTHONGS)